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Medium 9781786390981

6 The Invasive Mosquitoes of Medical Importance

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

6

The Invasive Mosquitoes of

Medical Importance

Roberto Romi1*, Daniela Boccolini1, Marco Di Luca1,

Jolyon M. Medlock2, Francis Schaffner3,4, Francesco

Severini1 and Luciano Toma1

1Istituto

Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; 2Public Health England,

Salisbury, United Kingdom; 3University of Zurich, Switzerland; and

4Francis Schaffner Consultancy, Riehen, Switzerland

Abstract

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are the most important group of blood-sucking insects that are vectors of human diseases. This chapter focuses mainly on six species belonging to the

Aedes, Culex and Anopheles genera, which, closely adapted to human habitats for thousands of years, have exploited human activities to spread and establish in areas far from their origin, becoming invasive. The mechanisms leading to the introduction and establishment of invasive mosquito species and the risk that they represent for human health in newly colonized areas are extensively described. In particular, this chapter focuses on the three powerful and widespread arbovirus disease vectors, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus, with shorter references to Ae. koreicus and other alien species recently recorded in Europe.

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Medium 9780253356376

23 Narratives of Agency: Sex Work in Indonesia’s Borderlands

KATHLEEN M ADAMS Indiana University Press ePub

Michele Ford and Lenore Lyons

“Some people do this kind of work because they are forced to, but others do it because they want to live the high life,” said Lia earnestly, responding to a question about the prevalence of trafficking in the sex industry on Karimun, an island on the western edge of the Riau Archipelago in Indonesia.1 An extremely attractive young woman in her mid-twenties, Lia is the image of middle-class Indonesian respectability in her modern, loose-fitting clothes and bright colored jilbab (headscarf) modestly fastened over her head and shoulders. Her comment neatly sums up the dichotomous thinking that dominates both public and scholarly discussions about sex work in Indonesia.2 According to this logic, sex workers are either forced into prostitution by circumstance (including instances of force or deception), or they freely choose to sell their bodies for financial gain.

Lia has lived in Karimun for more than a decade and is familiar with the circumstances that have given rise to a large sex industry on the island and elsewhere in the archipelago. The Riau Islands form the borderland between Singapore and Indonesia, at the periphery of the Indonesian state. The islands have been part of a growth triangle with Singapore and Malaysia since the early 1990s, resulting in large-scale foreign and joint-venture investment in manufacturing, tourism, transport, and service industries. An influx of migrant workers to the region, combined with the ease of travel from economically powerful Singapore, has created the conditions for the proliferation of vice industries such as sex work and gambling on many of the islands. The sex industry caters predominantly to men from nearby Singapore (and to a lesser extent Malaysia), and is fueled by geographical proximity, comparative cost, and the relative anonymity afforded by travel to a foreign country (Ford and Lyons 2008). Local islanders always say that sex workers come to the Riau Islands from other parts of Indonesia—from Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi, but mainly from Java—and this is supported by our research. While some scholars claim that women are trafficked to the Riau Islands following false promises of good jobs in factories or restaurants (Agustinanto 2003:179), activists from some local NGOs argue that many of the women who end up in the industry have previous experience as sex workers in Jakarta or elsewhere.

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Medium 9781845938116

9 Reducing Invasive Plant Performance: a Precursor to Restoration

Monaco, T.A., Editor CAB International PDF

9

Reducing Invasive Plant

Performance: a Precursor to

Restoration

Joseph M. DiTomaso1 and Jacob N. Barney2

1 Department

2 Department

of Plant Sciences, University of California, USA of Plant Pathology, Virginia Tech, USA

Introduction

Most non-native plants in natural areas do not out-compete native species or cause significant impacts to ecosystem function

(Rejmánek, 2000, 2011; Smith and Knapp,

2001). It has been estimated that <10% of invasive species that have established and persist in natural areas actually transform the ecosystem by changing the character, condition, form, or nature of an area

(Richardson et al., 2000). There are many theories and reviews on why species become invasive, including release from natural enemies and herbivores in their native range

(Keane and Crawley, 2002; Daehler, 2003), improved competitive ability through a shift in allocation from defense to growth

(Blossey and Nötzold, 1995), and the development of novel growth or functional forms in invasive species that have competitive advantages over native species

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Medium 9780253010421

4. Sabertooths as Living Predators

Antón, Mauricio Indiana University Press ePub

ALL THAT HAS SURVIVED OF THE SABERTOOTHS ARE THEIR FOSSILized bones, but they once were living creatures, and the aim of the science of paleobiology is to infer from their fossils as much as possible about their ways of life. But can we really do more than just imagine how the sabertooths moved, hunted, and interacted? Actually, if we know how to look, fossil bones can yield a surprising amount of information. Using a variety of methodological tools including functional morphology, comparative anatomy, dissection, and three-dimensional imaging, it is possible to get a remarkably rich picture of the once living creatures. The process is complex, and just like forensic scientists using the available evidence to solve a crime, we have to seek a balance between intuition and common sense.

The first step in this process is to reconstruct the anatomy of the sabertooth from the inside out, starting with its skeleton, posture, and proportions, and continuing with the musculature and the rest of the soft tissues, including the skin and even coat patterns. After that, the next step is to set the reconstructed creature in motion, inferring from the physical traits of its locomotor system the likely gaits and athletic abilities of each different sabertooth species: running, climbing, wrestling down prey, and so forth. Cranial structures associated with the brain and nerves provide information about coordination and sensory development. Combining all these data with the information about prey species and characteristics of the paleoenvironments, we can build hypotheses about the sabertooths’ hunting methods, which will be enriched by data about injuries and trauma, often associated with hunting accidents. Data on development and sexual dimorphism can give clues about family life and social structure, rounding out the picture of sabertooth lifestyles.

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Medium 9781574413229

Part I: When Blood Ran in the Streets (1910–1919)

Richard F. Selcer and Kevin S. Foster University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781605099798

Chapter 18: Same Same but Different

Mehta, Pavithra Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Dr. V is known to pace the corridors of the Madurai hospital, gauging the crowd and monitoring the workflow. Now in his 80s, he has started using a walking stick on these excursions. But he still tires occasionally and has to stop abruptly, putting an arm out to the wall for support. On one such occasion, a concerned nurse rushed up to inquire if something was wrong. “Not at all,” said Dr. V. “I’m just holding up the hospital.” The quick-witted response was not a total exaggeration.

Without Dr. V, Aravind simply would not exist. “He is its core and driving force,” says Fred Munson. “He is the one who turned Aravind from a little made-over nursing home into the largest eye care system in the world.” Yet Dr. V knew that a charismatic leader at the center of a visionary organization could quickly become a liability.

In the mid-20th century, a highly reputed ophthalmologist established a flourishing eye hospital that was orbited by a network of 30 satellite clinics in northern India. Dr. V held him and his institution in high regard, often speaking of their work as something to emulate. But when the founder passed away, within the span of a single generation most of the clinics either shut down or fell into severe disrepair. Soon there was little trace of the progressive organization that had led the country in the community eye care movement.

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Medium 9781855752900

3: Uncertainty, risk-taking, and ethics in therapy

Karnac Books ePub

Inga-Britt Krause

It is often observed that connecting, communicating, and being attached to others are fundamental biological processes and that human beings have developed capacities for these processes to the highest degree. Broadly, we refer to these complex human processes as social systems, society, language, or culture, and although all persons have these capacities they do not take the same shape and are not expressed in the same way everywhere. How these processes are expressed and what they mean varies according to local and specific conditions and relationships. However, at the same time as we recognize communication as a fundamental and primary process, how it is possible and can be achieved is also one of the most difficult problems for psychologists, anthropologists, physiologists, linguists, and philosophers to understand and explain. Connecting and communication is therefore an ontological problem; as such, it is not only a problem about which all cultural traditions provide a view, it is also a problem that becomes imbued with the politics of its context and changes according to prevailing power relations and ideologies. Thus, for example, capitalism as an ideology and a social system is underpinned and reinforced by rationalism, positivism, and economic theories that reduce persons to individual and autonomous “choosing machines” (Douglas & Ney, 1998), while other economies, cultural traditions, and historical contexts provide different views of individual persons and their connections with each other. Family therapy is a mode of treatment that aims at intervening in the way persons communicate with each other, in their connections and attachments and the way these are expressed. How, then, can family therapists who work cross-culturally think about this ontological problem usefully? I think that Gellner’s (1998) critique of Wittgenstein provides some useful clues about where to begin. The example is an intra-cultural one, but it applies to cross-cultural relationships and communication as well (Krause, 2001). Gellner criticizes the young Wittgenstein’s statement that “death is not an event in life” (Wittgenstein, 1921, p. 72) by pointing out that what exactly is it that people experience when they sit on deathbeds, when they minister to the dying, or indeed are present at executions or take part in battles? What exactly is it that happens at funerals and at cremations? If death is not an event in life, just how would you describe the events in the final act of Hamlet or Romeo and Juliet? [Gellner, 1998, p. 63]

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Medium 9781855757783

CHAPTER EIGHT: The personal and the professional: core beliefs and the construction of bridges across difference

Karnac Books ePub

Barry Mason

Introduction

This is a chapter that has evolved out of practice, theory, and personal experience. It arises from a long-standing focus on the relationship between the development of my own personal core beliefs and the influence of those beliefs on my clinical work as a family and systemic psychotherapist working with individuals, couples, and families from different cultures and religions. A central question for me has become not only how I can help clients find a systemic both–and position, and how the therapeutic relationship can encompass a both–and position, but also, to what extent I can find such a position in relation to my personal beliefs and my professional task. Some of the content herein comes from a certain disillusionment with some of the more recent developments in family therapy, and could be said to be a continuation of the work that contributed to the publication of the book, Exploring the Unsaid (Mason & Sawyerr, 2002), which sought to encourage practitioners to take more risks in working cross-culturally. This was based on the view that interpretations of the developments in theory and practice were hindering, as well as aiding, us in creating effective clinical work. As Alice Sawyerr and I wrote in our introduction to that book, “to develop intimacy, to develop closeness of whatever kind, one has to be prepared to take chances and risk vulnerability” (p. xix). This chapter is written with that in mind.

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Medium 9781605098241

Chapter 2: Predicting Training’s Value

Basarab, David Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

Chapter 2

Predicting Training’s Value

Business forecasting is indeed big business, with companies investing tremendous resources—in systems, time, and employees—aimed at bringing useful projections into the planning process. Business forecasting is a process used to estimate or predict future patterns using business data. Some examples of business forecasting include estimating quarterly sales, product demand, customer lifetime value and churn potential, inventory and supply-chain reorder timing, workforce attrition, and Web site traffic and predicting exposure to fraud and risk. Basically business forecasting is used to try to predict the future.

When we predict training’s value, we are using a form of business forecasting—estimating what training will deliver in terms of increased organizational and business results. These predictions come in the form of participant Intentions, Adoption, resulting Impact on the business, and the costs to deliver the value. These predictions enable decision makers to make highly informed proactive decisions. As with any business forecasting method, predicting training’s value has benefits and drawbacks that need to be weighed before proceeding.

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Medium 9781780646138

8: Predictive Characterization Methods for Accessing and Using CWR Diversity

Maxted, N.; Dulloo, M.E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V. CABI PDF

8 

Predictive Characterization Methods for Accessing and Using CWR Diversity

I. Thormann,1* M. Parra-Quijano,2 M.L. Rubio Teso,3 D.T.F. Endresen,4

S. Dias,1 J.M. Iriondo3 and N. Maxted5

1

Bioversity International, Rome, Italy; 2International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, FAO, Rome, Italy; 3Universidad Rey Juan Carlos,

Madrid, Spain; 4UiO Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway;

5

School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

8.1  Introduction

particular for CWR. Indeed, the lack of C&E data continues to be reported as one major limitation

The growing interest in crop wild relatives to the use of ex situ conserved plant genetic resources (PGR) (FAO, 2010), and traditional

(CWR) – wild progenitors or wild plant species ­ closely related to crops – as a source of adaptive characterization and evaluation methods cangenetic diversity in crop improvement and re- not catch up with the growing number of accessearch has led to: (i) gap analyses for targeted sions. Even fewer data are available for CWR ex  situ and in situ conservation (Maxted et al., populations conserved in situ. In situ C&E is not a

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Medium 9781576756294

CHAPTER 4: THE ECONOMIC DOUBLE STANDARD

Eisler, Riane Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Sometimes we don’t see what is in plain sight. This is particularly true when it comes to beliefs and values we’ve inherited.

In the Bible, we’re told that when King David had his famous affair with Bathsheba, he had her husband sent to the front lines, where his rival was conveniently killed. But instead of being punished for adultery and murder, David continued to reign.1 On the other hand, under biblical law a girl accused of not being a virgin would be taken by her father to the city gates and slowly stoned to death.2

The Bible also tells us that men could sell their daughters into slavery as servants or concubines and that marriage itself was a sales transaction. In Genesis, we read that Jacob worked seven years to get Laban’s daughter Rachel for his wife, and when Laban gave him her older sister Leah instead, he had to work another seven years to finally get the woman he’d bargained for. Another famous biblical story tells of how Lot offered his little daughters to a mob to be gang-raped—and instead of being punished, was chosen by God as the only moral man in the sinful cities of Sodom and Gomorrah!3

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Medium 9780253014856

Conclusions: The History of Medicine in Twentieth-Century China

Bridie Andrews Indiana University Press ePub

AT THE START of this project, we knew we were attempting something unusual in scholarly terms, for at least three reasons. Firstly, we asked historians who were specialized in one half of the twentieth century—either before or after the foundation of the Peoples’ Republic of China in 1949—to consider their topics across the “long” twentieth century. We were interested to see the contours of continuity and change over the longer time frame in order to avoid the teleologies of any one political regime. Secondly, we asked scholars from different scholarly communities to collaborate, so that our synthetic project would make visible the importance of different national and cultural perspectives on the interpretation of medical history. Fortunately, the last few decades of relative open exchange between China and the West means that we were able to call on experts based in China, Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, Taiwan/Republic of China, Britain, Canada, Australia, and the United States. Lastly, we decided not to limit ourselves to the development of “modern” medicine in China, even though that was the original remit of the China Medical Board. The engagement of the state with Chinese medicine was most pronounced during the Maoist era (1949–1976), but the whole history of modern medicine in China has been framed by the contrast and competition with indigenous medicine. We felt that any survey of medicine in twentieth-century China needed to take this encounter into account.

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Medium 9781855758254

Chapter Six - The Field Trials: DSM-5 and the New Crisis of Reliability

Cooper, Rachel Karnac Books ePub

At time of writing, the DSM-5 has only just been published, and studies showing what differences the revisions have made to clinical practice, research, or service provision, are unavailable. The DSM-5 field trials are currently the best estimators of likely effects. This chapter focuses on one particular issue that has become controversial following the field trials: reliability.

The diagnosis that a patient receives should depend on the symptoms, rather than on who does the diagnosing. Suppose a patient sees a clinical social worker in the United States and is judged to have schizophrenia. If a reliable classification system is used then it should enable, say, a psychiatrist in Kenya, to decide on the same diagnosis.

When the DSM-III was published in 1980, it was presented as solving the problem of ensuring diagnostic reliability (APA, 1980, pp. 467–472). The story told was that while in the dark days of psychoanalytic dominance a patient judged neurotic by one therapist might well appear psychotic or normal to another, with the employment of the DSM-III patients could expect to be given the same diagnosis by all clinicians. Proof of improvement was taken to be shown by a statistical measure, Cohen's kappa, which assesses the chances that two clinicians will agree on a diagnostic label. As DSM-III, and its successors, demonstrated “acceptable” values of kappa, the reliability problem was widely deemed to have been solved.

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Medium 9781574412659

40. Sports

Jacques D. Bagur University of North Texas Press PDF

40. Sports

A sport may be defined loosely as any skilled physical activity conducted for pleasure. Sports may be team or individual, competitive or noncompetitive, participatory or spectator, indoor or outdoor, with combinations of these elements. Sports as participatory and spectator phenomena have come to be so quintessentially American that their near absence in the South prior to the Civil War is one of its most striking cultural features. In particular, there were no competitive team sports such as baseball, football, or basketball. Baseball, the premier

American sport, was popular in the Northeast well before the Civil

War, but it does not begin to be mentioned in the newspapers of northeast Texas until the 1870s.

Athleticism in general and competitive athleticism in particular appear to have been of little interest to anyone. Few people knew how to swim, which is why drownings were frequent. People fought with their fists, but there are no reports of boxing in the papers of northeast

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Medium 9781523096046

Chapter 14: Measuring, Monitoring, and Evaluating Portfolio Performance

Kessler, Thomas G., Kelley, Patricia A. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

From the moment I picked up your book until I laid it down, I was convulsed with laughter. Some day I intend to read it.

—GROUCHO MARX, COMEDIAN

The early chapters of this book described the CPIC process. Later chapters focused on specialized analytical approaches used in CPIC to select the best alternatives for achieving investment objectives; identifying and evaluating risk as a basis for making adjustments to the project schedule and budget; and planning, measuring, and controlling work activities. Many federal officials can attest that they follow similar processes and use similar analytical techniques but still face considerable risk that their agencies’ investments will fail more often than they succeed—and that the agencies’ portfolios, as a whole, do not provide the desired level of performance.

Successful investment management takes more than procedures and methodologies. It also requires certain intangible factors—factors that separate those agencies that are very good at investment management from those that are not so good. This concluding chapter looks at those factors.

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