3456 Chapters
Medium 9781945349058

Chapter 7

Peery, Angela B. Solution Tree Press PDF

Varied Voice

W

e teachers often bemoan the words that our students use—the slang that creeps in, the text message—like writing, the basic words that are used repetitively.

In this chapter, the lessons will support you as you encourage your students to break out of the ordinary word rut and use more sophisticated, accurate words in both writing and speaking. In the lesson titles, the letter w denotes that the minilesson is about one or more replacement words, and the number indicates the order in which the specific lessons appear (for example, lesson W1, lesson W2, and so on).

First, we address perhaps the most tired word in all student writing, the ubiquitous said. Then, we cover replacements for another tired and vague word, nice.

Words to Replace the Overused Verb Said

Students use common and unspecific words in much of their normal everyday conversation, and this lack of imagination and diversity often carries over to their writing. These first few lessons help students distinguish among various shades of meaning and choose better words for said.

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Medium 9781574412024

Part 4a. College Years

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781936763757

Chapter 5 Direct Instruction

James H. Stronge Solution Tree Press ePub

Chapter 5

Direct Instruction

Direct instruction isn’t glamorous. As the name implies, educators often construe it as a no-frills, teacher-directed approach to instruction. Since the 1970s, teachers have continued to view it—and use it—as a viable teaching tool, largely because it gets student achievement results. Maybe the approach is not glamorous—but the results are.

Direct instruction does not mean all lecture or “drill and kill.” Prominent features of direct instruction include (Joyce et al., 2004):

•  A focus on academic tasks and learning

•  A high degree of teacher direction and control of the learning process

•  High expectations for student progress

•  A learning environment in which every minute counts

•  A relatively neutral atmosphere marked by avoidance of negative practices such as criticism

In general terms, direct instruction is an instructional method in which the teacher explains a new concept or skill to students in a large-group setting, has the students test their understanding through practice under the teacher’s direction, and then continues with guided practice (Joyce et al., 2004).

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Medium 9781935542728

5 How to Draw Additional Questions From State and National Standards

Daresh, John C., Daresh, Bridget Solution Tree Press ePub

Numerous lists of effective teacher characteristics have been adopted as standards to guide certification and licensure. These standards represent sets of performance expectations by teachers. As such, they would hardly be appropriate for direct use in the interviewing process. However, they may serve as the basis for areas of potential development for those who work in classrooms. In many cases, they have been used as the basis for evaluating performance of teachers in their jobs, and in some cases, standards have also been used as guides for teacher professional development activity. They may also be used as a way to determine the potential skills and abilities desired in job seekers. In this case, they can serve as frameworks to be used by administrators or others who need to gauge potential performance through the questioning process suggested in the preceding chapter.

The Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) standards were developed by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) primarily to guide the development of future teachers. There are ten standards ranging from knowledge of subject matter to classroom management to the development of partnerships with colleagues, parents, and the community. Following are the standards as described by the CCSSO (2011), accompanied by examples of interview questions based on the standards.

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Chapter 5

Peery, Angela B. Solution Tree Press PDF

Super Suffixes

A

suffix, like a prefix, is a word component added to a base word to make a new word. While prefixes are added to the beginnings of words, suffixes are added to the ends of words. The word beauty becomes beautiful with the addition of one of the most frequently used suffixes, -ful. The suffixes -er and -or are added to bases or roots to create all sorts of words that denote a person’s occupation or role, like teacher, singer, dancer, writer, doctor, aviator, curator, and surveyor. Other suffixes, though lesser used, immediately give us information about a word’s meaning. For example, -dom added to free lets us know about a state of being, freedom, and added to bore, it denotes a less pleasant state of being, boredom. Suffixes can make new words by adding either inflectional or derivational endings.

Inflectional endings account for 65 percent of all suffixed words (White et al., 1989). Inflectional endings give us grammatical information about any word they are added to. They add a letter or group of letters to base words to make different grammatical forms of the words, helping us determine how a word functions in a sentence. Verbs are inflected for number, tense, and to make participles and gerunds. For example, when the suffix -ed is added to a verb form, we know that the verb is in past tense. When -ing is added to a verb form, we know that the verb is either serving in the present progressive tense or functioning as a participle or gerund. The sentence “I’m shopping online instead of doing my homework” uses the word shopping in the present progressive tense to describe what

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