90 Chapters
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Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

For both smoothbore and rifled artillery, grape stands and quilted grape served a different purpose from case shot and canister. Quilted grape and grape stands were designed to damage ships’ rigging and spars or fortification equipment, with the fragments from this damage causing major casualties to gun crews.

Some confusion exists about the use of grape stands and quilted grape. As general antipersonnel weapons, grape stands and quilted grape in field calibers had been largely replaced by canister by the time the war began. It appears that early in the war grape stands replaced quilted grape for calibers below 8 inch. Quilted grape were used in all calibers above 8 inches, including the 15-inch size, which has been documented aboard

Monitor-type gunboats1 and in postwar Bannerman catalogs.2 However, the Confederates captured a large supply of 32-pounder quilted grape when the Southern states seceded and had others manufactured during the early years of the war. These were deployed to river and coastal gun positions. A number of these 32-pounder quilted grape were excavated near Fort Huger, North Carolina, some years ago, and others reportedly were recovered in gun positions along the Mississippi and elsewhere over the years.

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Lynall Thomas

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Lynall Thomas

Not much is known about Lynall Thomas, an Englishman credited with the design of complicated rifled shells of doubtful effectiveness supplied to the Confederacy. The shell consisted of a narrow shell body with a very large head. Behind the head a lead sleeve and lead disk were cast and a midshell thick iron band put on the outside of the lead sleeve. Another lead disk separated the midshell iron band from a thick rear iron band.

Upon firing, the iron bands were forced forward on the lead sleeve, squeezing the lead disks into the rifling.

Shells of this design have been recovered in three calibers: 4.62-inch, 5.82-inch, and

6.4-inch. Almost all the shells in each caliber come from only a single area. The 4.62inch shells come from Awendaw and Charleston, South Carolina. The single 5.82-inch shell is from the West Point collection, and all of the 6.4-inch Lynall Thomas shells come from the areas around Fort Fisher and nearby Fort Caswell.

Only one complete fired specimen has been noted (the 6.4-inch shell documented in this book). It appears to have taken the rifling effectively.

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Medium 9781574414516

Plastics

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Plastics

For this section we will use the generic word plastic to describe Celluloid, Lucite, Plexiglas, Bakelite, Catalin, and other polymer acrylic products.

Celluloid, the first synthetic plastic material, was developed in the 1860s and 1870s from a formulation of nitrocellulose and camphor. It is a moldable material that was capable of low-cost production in a variety of colors.

Celluloid was made into toiletry articles, novelties, photographic film, and many other mass-produced goods.

Celluloid is highly flammable and its popularity began to wane toward the middle of the 20th century, following the introduction of plastics based entirely on synthetic polymers. Lucite and Plexiglas are trademarked names of synthetic, colorless, and highly transparent materials with high stability and good resistance to weathering and to shock. Lucite and Plexiglas can be tinted or rendered opaque by the addition of other substances. They are usually fabricated by molding into solid articles or casting into sheets. Bakelite, invented in 1907, is a phenolic resin used for making vintage radio cases, jewelry, kitchen utensils, and a myriad of other highly collectible items.

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Colorfast Fabrics

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Cedar Aroma Renewal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

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