171 Chapters
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Medium 9780253021311

3. Dilemmas of Disclosure

Kathryn A. Rhine Indiana University Press ePub


Dilemmas of Disclosure

Over the past two decades, the number of HIV counseling and testing centers in medical sites across Nigeria has grown exponentially. Women also receive HIV tests when they seek prenatal care in hospitals. Because these services are routinely offered, many wives learn their status without their husbands’ knowledge. They must then decide if and how to disclose the results to them. Counselors often complained to me about the difficulties they had trying to persuade women to bring their husbands in for screening. I asked one administrator how she managed this challenge. She told me confidently:

Well, the number one thing that can be done to ease this issue is counseling. When women attend HIV counseling, it goes over very well. But, there is a different way you counsel a man because … well, personally, this is the way I do it: I will write a note to the husband. I will say that I would like to see him in the hospital because I have an important issue to discuss with him regarding the baby. So, the moment they see this note, they are very eager … that, “a medical personnel wants to see me! Let me go and know what is happening.” And, when the man comes, that will be the only opportunity that I have to even sit down and counsel him…. Specifically, I tell men, “Okay, when women come to the hospital to deliver the baby, they may need a blood transfusion. And, because HIV is so rampant now, we need to screen your blood.” If you just tell men directly that it is an HIV test, they will not like it. You will say that they need to know their blood group, the genotype, and so on. “Without this blood information,” we say, “your wife might get blood from somebody, and you will not know whether the person is HIV-positive.” They will say, “No! No! No! Madam, please test me so that I will know my status, just in case … so that you can prepare for the birth.”

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Medium 9781574412970

Secret 11:Go Confidently with Expert Encouragement

Kalena Cook and Margaret Christensen, M.D. University of North Texas Press PDF


Go Confidently with

Expert Encouragement

Ina May Gaskin, C.P.M.

Founder and Director of The Farm Midwifery Center, Author and

Founding Member of Midwives Alliance of North America

Spiritual Midwifery, by midwife Ina May Gaskin, inspired the collecting of natural birth stories from women of today for this book.

The Farm’s Midwifery Center delivered 1723 births over a nineteenyear period with an outstanding safety record: zero maternal mortality and only ten neonatal mortalities, three of which being lethal abnormalities.The majority were home births with 4.2 percent in a hospital. Only

1.4 percent of the births were C-sections.

So far, Ina May Gaskin is the only midwife that a birth maneuver has been named after. The Gaskin Maneuver is a position of the mom on all fours—hands and knees—for assisting shoulder dystocia. If a baby’s shoulder becomes stuck during delivery, moving the mom into this positioning allows gravity to open the way for the gentle birth.

Another term coined by Ina May is the “Sphincter Law.”The circular muscles of our body stay closed until they need to release the contents of the organ. “You can’t order a sphincter to open. Why don’t we call the cervix a sphincter?” Ina May asks. In dilation for labor, the Sphincter Law explains when a woman may be dilated but suddenly closes to a smaller opening because of being afraid or sensing the anxiety of someone in the room. Understanding how much the setting and her vulnerability affects the birthing mom means offering privacy, access to food and drink, and allowing her to labor with love instead of fear for the best outcomes.

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Medium 9781786392848

22 Sustainability Along All Value Chains: Exploring Value Chain Interactions in Sustainable Food Systems

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF


Sustainability Along All Value Chains:

Exploring Value Chain Interactions in Sustainable Food Systems

Allison Marie Loconto, Pilar Santacoloma, Roberto Azofeifa Rodríguez,

Emilie Vandecandelaere and Florence Tartanac


The value chain, as an analytical tool, has been used for more than 50 years as a way to better understand how agri-food products move and gain value from the farm gate to the table. Over the past 20 years, increasing attention has been paid to questions of sustainability within value chains and even more recently there has been a push to try to better understand how the way through which food is provisioned can deliver diets that are also sustainable. In this chapter, we explore the recent advances in value chain theories and we illustrate how taking a horizontal network, systemic and territorialized approach to food provisioning systems contributes to this literature. We argue that by looking both within and across value chains, we can better identify innovations in actor arrangements that are bringing new values (particularly sustainability) into food systems. By refocusing our analytical lens away from specific commodities and towards new forms of organization – such as short supply chains, circular economies, gastronomy and geographical indications – we can better capture how they might contribute to promoting sustainable consumption and production in local food systems.

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Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Three: “He told me not to tell.”

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Three

“He told me not to tell.”

Sexual education (with all options) is something I have very strong feelings about. I was a victim of incest from the age of seven until sixteen. It was not until my health class in tenth grade did I come to realize what my father was doing was not normal.

—Mary Lynn, age thirty

Conspiracy of silence and shame

The conspiracy of silence about sex, on both a personal and social level, still leaves girls vulnerable to so many things. Pregnancy and disease, of course. But also exploitation by sexual predators. And they will know, thanks to our silence, that we’re not the ones they can come to for help. I find it is extraordinary to read the hundreds of letters from young women and see how many stories contain a thread of sexual abuse. A recent University of Pennsylvania study concludes that sexual abuse of young people is far more common than previously thought— and that we ought to be teaching our children to beware of relatives and friends, who commit nearly all of the abuse, as well as the strangers who are responsible for a small percentage of it.

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Medium 9781786392398

7: Bioavailability and Biotransformation of Tea Polyphenols

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF


Bioavailability and Biotransformation of Tea Polyphenols

Chung S. Yang* and Mao-Jung Lee

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA


Tea, a popular beverage worldwide, has been reported to have many beneficial health effects. Most of these biological effects have been attributed to the tea polyphenols: (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate

(EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC). Of these,

EGCG is the most abundant and most biologically active constituent. Its biological activity is limited by its relatively low systemic bioavailability because of efflux mechanisms. In comparison to gallated catechins (EGCG and ECG), the bioavailability of EGC and EC are much higher. These catechins are mainly methylated, glucuronidated, and sulfated before elimination. The rather large molecular weight black tea polyphenols, theaflavins, and theasubigim, appear to have very low or no bioavailability, but this topic remains to be further investigated. On the other hand, the low molecular weight microbial metabolites in “dark tea” are expected to have good bioavailabilities. The unabsorbed green and black tea polyphenols can be degraded by microbes in the intestine and may affect health through modifying the intestinal microbiota. These subjects remain to be further studied.

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Medium 9780253015969

4 Nature and/or Nurture?

Jo B. Paoletti Indiana University Press ePub

Where do masculinity and femininity come from? After all, it is fairly obvious that newborn humans have neither set of qualities. Yet by the time they are two or three years old children not only know the rules, but they also have become its primary enforcers, as any observer of a preschool playgroup can confirm. With the women’s movement challenging traditional female roles and popular culture offering a range of new expressions of modern masculinity and femininity, it seems inevitable that children would get swept up in the excitement and confusion. If nothing else, the link between adult and children’s clothing would mean that kids and grownups would wear similar styles. This clearly happened during the 1960s and ’70s, but there was something else at work too. Emerging scientific evidence pointed to gender roles being learned and malleable in the very young. This affected children regardless of where their parents stood on women’s rights or sexual morality. Given the drive to transform women’s roles and promote gender equality, it’s likely that if you were born between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, you experienced non-gendered child raising to some extent. If you didn’t wear your sibling’s hand-me-down Garanimals outfits, the kindergarten teacher might be reading William’s Doll to you at story time. Or you might be singing along to your Free to Be . . . You and Me record on your Fisher-Price record player, after watching Sesame Street, which featured Susan Robinson as a working woman who liked to fix cars in her spare time.1

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Medium 9781780643960

1: Introduction and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Humans

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Introduction and Epidemiology of

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in


Isdore C. Shamputa,1 Sang Nae Cho,2 Janette Lebron1 and Laura E. Via1*


National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA; 2Yonsei University

College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea

History of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is arguably one of the most devastating diseases that have afflicted mankind from time immemorial. Known by many different names throughout history, such as phthisis, scrofula, consumption, King’s Evil, lupus vulgaris, the white plague and ‘captain of all these men of death’, the scourge remains a significant public health concern. Perhaps the earliest evidence of TB comes from skeletal remains from burial sites from the latter part of the last Stone Age. Both macroscopic as well as microscopic evidence of TB, using modern scientific methods, has been found from excavations of mummified bodies from tombs from ancient Egypt dating as far back as 2400 bc (Allison et al., 1961; Nerlich et al.,

1997; Zink et al., 2003). Drawings, pottery and statues of ancient Egypt that date up to 3000 bc have shown physical deformities that appear to show typical characteristics of TB of the spine (Vasiliadis et al., 2009; Dyer, 2010).

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7 Indigenous Food Systems: Contributions to Sustainable Food Systems and Sustainable Diets

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF


Indigenous Food Systems:

Contributions to Sustainable

Food Systems and Sustainable Diets

Harriet Kuhnlein, Paul Eme and Yon Fernandez de Larrinoa

Nana and Baba the creators told us: We have given you everything, you will not be poor if you are close to us, there will always be food. This is why the Guna are always respecting the Forest and the Oceans, and everything created by Baba and Nana (Guna Yala Chief  ).

(López, 2017)


Indigenous food systems are remarkable reservoirs of unique cultural knowledge grounded in historical legacy and spirituality that acknowledge the inextricable link of people with their sustainably managed resources. These sustainable food systems can provide essential understanding about sustainable diets and their importance to many of the Sustainable Development Goals. Unique practices of land and plant and animal management are now threatened by extreme weather and overall climate variability that compound the risks of a long list of environmental assaults upon indigenous lands. Despite vast knowledge of the world’s territories and guardianship of

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9: Green Tea Catechins for the Prevention of Colorectal Tumorigenesis: from Bench to Bed

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF


Green Tea Catechins for the Prevention of

Colorectal Tumorigenesis: from Bench to Bed

Masahito Shimizu* and Hisataka Moriwaki

Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious healthcare problem worldwide. Thus, effective prevention strategies are urgently required. The removal of adenomatous polyps, which are precancerous CRC lesions, may reduce the risk of CRC. Green tea catechins (GTCs) inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in CRC cells by blocking the activation of several receptor tyrosine kinases. GTC supplementation also prevented inflammation- and obesity-related colorectal tumorigenesis in animal studies. Furthermore, a preliminary human trial has shown that GTCs successfully prevent the development of colorectal adenomas. These studies suggest that GTC supplementation might be a promising strategy for the prevention of colorectal tumorigenesis.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, green tea catechins, receptor tyrosine kinase

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29: Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Nontuberculous Mycobacterial


Joseph O. Falkinham III*

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA


Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that share environments with animals, poultry and humans. The causative agent of Johne’s disease in cattle, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, is the only classic pathogen of the group; all other subspecies are opportunistic pathogens. For the opportunists, disease follows exposure to the portion of the population that is transiently susceptible. Quite possibly the major sources of

NTM infection for humans are drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing (Falkinham et  al., 2001; Falkinham, 2011). As NTM are natural inhabitants of soils (Iivanainen et al.,

1997; De Groote et al., 2006), soil is a source of infection for both humans and animals (via dusts). NTM are quite hardy; their wax-rich outer membrane contributes to their resistance to disinfection and antibiotics (Brennan and Nikaido, 1995). As the NTM are innately resistant to anti-tuberculosis agents, drug therapy is problematic, even in humans and companion animals. For agronomic animals, for example pigs, it is more cost effective to reduce levels of NTM in the animal’s environment.

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1 Gender and AIDS in an Unequal World

Mark Hunter Indiana University Press ePub

In 2006, Jacob Zuma, then sixty-four and South Africa’s former deputy president, was accused of rape. Zuma, who had entered anti-apartheid politics after growing up in rural KwaZulu-Natal, faced charges from a woman he had known for some time—her father was a fellow member of the African National Congress before his death. “Khwezi” (Star), as she was called by her supporters, was only half Zuma’s age and an HIV-positive AIDS activist.

The trial—in the words of one newspaper headline, “23 Days That Shook Our World”—appeared to crystallize fundamental gulfs in South Africa’s young democracy.1 Outside the court, and watched by the hungry media, some of Zuma’s supporters burnt photographs of Khwezi and yelled, “Burn the bitch!” Inside the courtroom, Zuma controversially drew on Zulu customs to claim that he could acquire sex relatively easily and was therefore no rapist: “Angisona isishimane mina,” he stated (I don’t struggle to attract women/I am not a sissy). He also argued that in Zulu culture a man who left a woman sexually aroused could himself be charged with rape. Zuma’s defense, in other words, was that he was no rapist, just a traditional patriarch with a large sexual appetite.2

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Secret 12: Prepare for Baby’s Arrival: Beyond the Name and Nursery

Kalena Cook and Margaret Christensen, M.D. University of North Texas Press PDF


Prepare for Baby’s Arrival

Beyond the Name and Nursery


Breastmilk is alive and life-giving like a white blood transfusion to your baby.

The best time to begin breastfeeding is right after birth while your newborn is alert. Help your baby latch on properly by getting the whole areola (brown circle with the nipple) in your baby’s mouth.The suction action of your baby helps to contract your uterus (along with external massage below your belly button) which is important to reduce bleeding.

Colostrum, the clear fluid before your milk comes in, is the perfect food for a newborn.

Your milk comes in within a few days.The more often you feed, the less discomfort you’ll have from engorgement, and the more milk you provide your baby. Engorgement, a normal fullness or swelling of the breasts, occurs when you first begin producing milk. Breastfeeding as often as possible relieves the pressure. Ice packs also offer relief. Don’t give formula supplements or water to your baby for the first three to four weeks.

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16: Antidiabetic Effects

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF


Antidiabetic Effects

Noriyuki Miyoshi*

University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease in which a person has chronically high blood sugar levels. There are various types of DM, but approximately 90% of the cases in Japan are type 2 DM caused by lifestyle factors stemming from eating and exercise habits. Long-term hyperglycemia can cause capillary disorders and lead to DM-related complications such as retinopathy, kidney diseases, and neuropathy. A number of studies have indicated that the ingestion of green tea or tea catechins is effective in preventing a rise in blood sugar levels. Several mechanisms of action are involved in this effect including:

(i) inhibition of α-amylase activity in the digestive juice, which is involved in producing sugar from starch, resulting in a reduction in glucose production and uptake in the digestive tract; (ii) promotion of the glucose intake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue; (iii) enhancement of sensitivity of insulin, a hormone that lowers blood glucose levels, and protection of pancreatic β cells; and (iv) suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis (e.g. glucose production from non-carbohydrates) to prevent a rise in postprandial blood glucose levels. Recent cellular and animal studies revealed molecular mechanisms underlying gluconeogenesis suppression by green tea catechins in which epigallocatechin gallate, a main constituent of green tea catechins, inhibits gene and protein expressions of transcriptional factors involved in the gluconeogenesis. In human studies, amelioration of insulin resistance by green tea and catechins is observed. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that the habitual drinking of green tea reduces the morbidity risk of DM. Although further detailed analyses are required to evaluate the beneficial effects on humans, drinking of green tea appears to prevent and improve DM through the multiple activities of its constituents. Because DM increases the risk of colon and liver carcinogenesis in addition to obesity and arteriosclerosis, habitual drinking of green tea would be a promising strategy for the primary prevention of not only DM but also these related disorders.

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Chapter Five: Jelly woman to handsome princess

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Five

Jelly woman to handsome princess

Twenty-two. College graduation right around the corner. Having trouble with the pill, no steady boyfriend, decided to discontinue the pill. Old boyfriend renewed his interest and didn’t listen to “be careful, use a condom . . . ” I should have been more adamant. He didn’t stick around much longer after that anyhow. Never have I hesitated since to stand up for my own well being.

I strongly believe I made the right decision to discontinue the pregnancy. There was no way I could have appropriately provided for a child had the pregnancy continued. I must confess, however, that there are times I ponder just what that 15year-old would be like today . . . but only for a moment. Just long enough to know that I was lucky to have a choice in the first place and that making a mistake shouldn’t mean having a child out of guilt. It shouldn’t mean creating a situation where a child feels this guilt and possible resentment; or where a child does not receive all the care it deserves. Healthy adults are the by-products of healthy children. There is already enough

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21: Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex spp. in Group-living African Mammals

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

21 Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Complex spp. in Group-living

African Mammals


Kathleen A. Alexander,1,2,* Claire E. Sanderson1,2 and Peter N. Laver3

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia; 2Center for African Resources: Animals,

Communities and Land Use, Kasane, Botswana; 3University of Pretoria,

Onderstepoort, South Africa


Tuberculosis (TB) pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MtbC) are of global importance in human, domestic animal and wildlife health, and are currently a major concern in conservation, threatening wildlife populations, particularly rare and endangered species

(De Lisle et al., 2002; Dye, 2006; Renwick et al., 2007). Despite the antiquity of this disease

(~2700 bc; Galagan, 2014), TB remains a significant health threat with much of the biology of host–pathogen dynamics incompletely understood. In wildlife hosts, TB disease can vary importantly among species with some acting as significant reservoirs of infection while others appear to be only involved in occasional spillover infections. A comparative understanding of how the various MtbC pathogens interact with different wildlife hosts would provide critical insight into the circumstances that might support or reduce the likelihood of pathogen transmission and persistence, and the relative influence of respective pathogens, hosts and environmental characteristics on this process.

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