171 Chapters
Medium 9780253015778

Acknowledgments

Pravina Shukla Indiana University Press ePub

MY AIM IN WRITING THIS BOOK WAS TO UNDERSTAND HOW COSTUME enables individuals to perform identities that are not expressed through daily dress. As a folklorist, I conducted case studies using ethnographic methods to show how costume functions to express identity in contexts full of intention and meaning. During this project, which began in 2007, I have accumulated debts to many individuals who have taught me about the significance of costume.

My first debt is to the people who furthered my intellectual pursuit by providing me with hours of recorded interviews and allowing me to observe, photograph, and understand costumes in use, both abroad and here in the United States. Two people in particular gave me much support and encouragement at the project’s beginning—Ellen Adair and Kersti Jobs-Björklöf. Both Ellen and Kersti spent many hours talking to me about the nuanced ways in which costume functions: Ellen on how costumes communicate on the professional theater stage and Kersti on how folk costumes express identity and heritage in contemporary Sweden. Ellen and Kersti not only shared their expertise with me; they also led me to other people to interview.

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Medium 9781786392398

18: Effects of Green Tea on Influenza Infection and the Common Cold

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

18 

Effects of Green Tea on Influenza

Infection and the Common Cold

Hiroshi Yamada*

University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan

Abstract

Influenza and the common cold are acute infectious illnesses of the respiratory tract. Influenza is a severe, highly infectious disease caused by the influenza virus; when aggravated, it may become life-threatening. Both illnesses are highly infectious, making prevention very important. In basic studies, tea catechins have been found to inhibit influenza viral adsorption and suppress replication. Catechins are also effective against some cold viruses. In addition to catechins, green tea contains theanine and vitamin C, which enhance immunity against viral infection, suggesting green tea may prevent influenza and/or the common cold. Although the antiviral activity of tea components has been demonstrated, there has been limited clinical evidence to support their utility. Epidemiological studies suggest regular consumption of green tea decreases rates of influenza infection and some cold symptoms. Gargling with green tea catechin extracts and consumption of catechins and theanine may protect against the development of influenza. Further studies are needed to confirm their clinical efficacy.

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Medium 9781786392848

21 Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS): a Legacy for Food and Nutrition Security

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

21 

Globally Important Agricultural

Heritage Systems (GIAHS): a Legacy for Food and Nutrition Security

Parviz Koohafkan

Abstract

In many countries specific agricultural systems and landscapes have been created, shaped and maintained by generations of farmers and herders based on diverse species and their interactions and using locally adapted, distinctive and often ingenious combinations of management practices and techniques. Globally important agricultural heritage systems (GIAHS) represent a unique sub-set of these agricultural systems, which exemplify customary use of globally significant agricultural biodiversity and merit to be recognized as a heritage of mankind.

Agricultural heritage systems throughout the world testify to the inventiveness and ingenuity of farmers in their use and management of the finite resources, biodiversity and interspecies dynamics, and the physical attributes of the landscape, codified in traditional but evolving knowledge, practices and technologies. However, GIAHS are rapidly shrinking victims of globalization, urbanization and unsustainable technological and economic changes.

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Medium 9780253015969

4 Nature and/or Nurture?

Jo B. Paoletti Indiana University Press ePub

Where do masculinity and femininity come from? After all, it is fairly obvious that newborn humans have neither set of qualities. Yet by the time they are two or three years old children not only know the rules, but they also have become its primary enforcers, as any observer of a preschool playgroup can confirm. With the women’s movement challenging traditional female roles and popular culture offering a range of new expressions of modern masculinity and femininity, it seems inevitable that children would get swept up in the excitement and confusion. If nothing else, the link between adult and children’s clothing would mean that kids and grownups would wear similar styles. This clearly happened during the 1960s and ’70s, but there was something else at work too. Emerging scientific evidence pointed to gender roles being learned and malleable in the very young. This affected children regardless of where their parents stood on women’s rights or sexual morality. Given the drive to transform women’s roles and promote gender equality, it’s likely that if you were born between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, you experienced non-gendered child raising to some extent. If you didn’t wear your sibling’s hand-me-down Garanimals outfits, the kindergarten teacher might be reading William’s Doll to you at story time. Or you might be singing along to your Free to Be . . . You and Me record on your Fisher-Price record player, after watching Sesame Street, which featured Susan Robinson as a working woman who liked to fix cars in her spare time.1

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Medium 9781780643960

5: Development of Next-generation TB Vaccines: Comparative Approaches in Humans and Animals

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

5 

Development of Next-generation TB

Vaccines: Comparative Approaches in

Humans and Animals

Michael J. Brennan,1* Salma Samad1 and R. Glyn Hewinson2

Aeras, Rockville, USA; 2Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

1

Although BCG vaccine remains useful for neonatal vaccination in human populations and for veterinary control of mycobacterial diseases in cattle and other animals, its inability to prevent global TB in adults (Kaufmann,

2006) has inspired a decades-long effort to discover new, more effective TB vaccines for human disease. There has been considerable progress in many aspects of TB vaccine development but many challenges remain. Mice, guinea pig and non-human primate TB challenge models are commonly used for testing

TB vaccine candidates (McShane et al., 2012), but cattle and other animals have also been used to investigate the host immune responses and effectiveness of certain vaccine candidates (see Chapter 10, this volume; Waters et al., 2012; Buddle et al., 2013). The development and use of animal challenge models for

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