235 Chapters
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Medium 9781622500291

Communicating by Fax

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

COMMUNICATING BY FAX

A facsimile, or fax, machine electronically sends and receives copies of documents over telephone lines. With the correct software, computers can now send and receive faxes. When a document is sent, one machine communicates with the other. Here are some important words to know when communicating by fax. facsimile fax document original reproduction receiver jam transceiver distort transmitter

A. Complete each item with a word from the box. For help, use the first letters of the words and context clues in the sentences.

1. A paper with a printed, written, or drawn image is a

d________________.

2. The sender places the o____________________ picture or document in the fax machine.

r____________________, or copy, of the original.

4. A machine that sends a message is called a t_________________________.

5. A machine that accepts a message is the r____________________________.

6. A t____________________ can both send and receive a message.

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Medium 9781626567856

3 Know Thy Reader

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

The future of publishing is about having connections to readers and the knowledge of what those readers want.
Seth Godin

You now understand the value of building a brand and you’ve captured your dreams for your book. The next step is to figure out your audience, because you need to know how to find them and reach them. You need to know where your readers spend their time and what social media sites they visit. There’s no point in learning to be the next Twitter expert if your audience is not even on Twitter.

Do you know where to find your readers based on what you know about them? Your answer is probably, “Kinda.” Even if you think you know your readers, your ideas are probably way too broad. Over the years, authors have told me interesting things when it comes to their audience. Most of the time it’s half the planet. “My audience is women,” they tell me, or “it’s people who have a job,” or “people who have families.” Being broad and general is not helpful when you are planning online marketing.

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Medium 9781574411713

3: Undermining Policy and Practice

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

RETRENCHMENT AND REDEFINITION, 1980–1988

65

Congress and in state legislatures and ballot initiatives throughout the country. Because of its national membership, it played an influential role in developing arguments against federal bilingual education and in helping to repeal or modify this policy.

UNDERMINING POLICY AND PRACTICE

The diverse opposition not only questioned various aspects of federal bilingual education, it sought legislative and administrative changes in this policy, in its funding, and in the federal government’s role. The supporters of bilingual education also contested these actions.

Opposition within the federal government came primarily from elected officials in the executive and legislative branch of government.

The former I refer to as executive opponents, the latter as congressional opponents.

Executive opponents, led by two Republican presidents, guided the efforts to weaken federal support for bilingual education. Ronald Reagan initiated the campaign against bilingual education in 1980.38 A primary objective of his administration was to limit the role of the federal government.39 In keeping with this philosophy, Reagan and his congressional allies mounted an attack against bilingual education.40

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Medium 9781622500291

Electronics Stores

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

ELECTRONICS STORES

Some superstores sell all kinds of electronic equipment. Others specialize in certain types of items. The items in the box are things you are likely to find in electronics stores. video game

MP3 player

clock radio stereo set

television camcorder

microwave oven answering machine

DVR computer

Read each statement. Write the kind of electronic equipment being used on the line. The first one has been done for you.

1. Yasmin watches the soap opera Love in the

Afternoon every weekday at 3:00. _____________ television

2. Shazi wakes up to music every morning at 6:00 a.m. _______________________

3. Mrs. Lopez filmed the sights and sounds of her daughter’s first birthday party. _______________________

4. As soon as he gets home, Louis hits the play button to see who might have called. _______________________

5. Tad’s frozen dinner will be heated in 3 minutes. _____________________

6. Vic listens to his favorite music while jogging in the park. _______________________

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Medium 9781622500291

Saving and Investing 2

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

SAVING AND INVESTING II

A. Use synonyms (words with similar meanings) as context clues. Notice the

boldfaced word in the first sentence of each item. Then circle a synonym for that word in the second sentence. The first one has been done for you.

1. Herman invests his money conservatively. He cautiously buys stocks that give sure and steady returns on his money.

2. Juan is a more speculative investor. He believes that risky investments can give him greater returns.

3. Herman’s profits come slowly. Juan’s gains, on the other hand, can come quickly—along with some losses.

4. Herman’s employer offers a good pension plan. Money from each paycheck goes into his retirement account.

5. Herman is confident that his savings are safe.

He is certain he will have enough money in his old age.

6. “Security is a good thing!” says Herman. “I want peace of mind when I think about my future.”

7. “I have received big dividends on some of my investments!” says Juan. “These earnings put my children through college.”

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Medium 9781626567856

Introduction

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In my twenty years of promoting books online, I have worked with bestselling authors, celebrity authors, longtime authors, first-time authors, and some self-published authors. While the challenges may differ from book to book, all authors have a similar concern: how to spend their time effectively promoting their book and expanding their brands online while writing the best book possible. Whether you’re writing your first book or you write three books a year, you are probably very busy and you must make every minute count.Together, we will figure out the best use of your time and the best way to engage with your specific readers. I hope to make the marketing process meaningful and fun for you. I am not going to tell you that if you follow my advice, your book will be #1 on Amazon (that would be a great sales pitch, though), but what I can tell you is that if you follow my advice, you will create meaningful interactions with your readers and build a long-term, successful personal brand online. Having visibility online is not just about selling a book, it’s about building a career.

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Medium 9781622500291

Medical Specialists

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

MEDICAL SPECIALISTS

A specialist is a doctor who is highly trained in a certain field. Physicians who specialize get extra education in one certain area.

A. The words in the list name medical

specialties. Find each one in the hidden words puzzle. Words may go up, down, across, backward, or diagonally. Check off each word as you find it.

___ dermatology

___ neurology

___ allergy

___ psychiatry

___ ophthalmology

___ surgery

___ gynecology

___ oncology

___ obstetrics

___ pediatrics

N E U R O L O G Y T G O

V A M B D R I N T S Y P

O B S T E T R I C S N H

N I S C I S M I O P E T

C J R Z D I R C C I C H

O B E S T T H Y A D O A

L R C O A N R Z T M L L

O O E I O E A H H V O M

G K D C G S C T A K G O

Y E S R A L L E R G Y L

P P U O S U U N L I E O

P S Y C H I A T R Y J G

R D E R M A T O L O G Y

B. Write a letter to match each specialist on the left with his or her specialty. Use a dictionary if you need help.

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Medium 9781574411713

4: Conclusion

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

THE FINAL PUSH, 1990S

93

Given that state governments are likely to experience budget deficits over the next several years while the number of ELLs continues to grow we approach this shift in policy with caution. Unless the schools receive increased resources to serve these additional ELLs, then the funds could end up being spread too thinly among schools to be effective. Thus, we believe that proper implementation of this legislation means that the Congress and the Bush Administration must close the loop by providing states the resources and technical assistance they need to provide ELLs with a quality education. In addition, they must more effectively monitor implementation of the program to ensure that the states are able to meet the ambitious goal.45

CONCLUSION

The passage of this bill means that after several decades of attacking and undermining this policy the opponents have finally succeeded in repealing bilingual education and in replacing it with an English-only one. The forces of conservatism, assimilation, and ignorance, in other words, have triumphed over pluralism and over enlightened pedagogy. Is this, then, the beginning of the end for bilingualism in the United States or is this only a temporary setback? Nobody really knows at this point. But if history is any guide, we are bound to see the clash between contending groups with competing notions of assimilation, ethnicity, empowerment, social change, and pedagogy continue and probably escalate in the years ahead. Contestation and contradiction have and will continue to shape the content of school language policies in the years to come for they are central to the policy development process. It might be appropriate here to end this history with the words of Josué M. González, one of the most important and influential advocates of bilingual education in the nation. Recently, in reflecting on the demise of federal bilingual education policy and on the federal government’s support for this policy, he noted that this temporary setback will not have a dampening effect on bilingualism or on dual language instruction. In the wake of this demise,

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Medium 9781622500291

Resale Shopping

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

RESALE SHOPPING

A. The words in the box are often used to describe

items that have already had at least one owner.

Complete the rhymes with words from the box.

Hint: The word you write should rhyme with the word in italics. second-hand  previously used  pre-owned

. I offered my wedding dress.

1

My daughter refused.

She did not want a gown

That was ______________________

. I saw an ad in the paper.

2

3. Though the piano needs tuning,

I sat down and phoned. It’s a fine baby grand.

I could afford this computer I got a real bargain

Since it was ___________________ When I bought ___________________

B. Places to find used goods for sale are listed on the left. Write a letter to match each with its description.

1. _____ garage/yard sale

a. sales by individuals through a company; usually selling the entire household properties of someone who has died

b. sale by private parties of goods they no longer want; items are usually sold out of their garage or yard for very low prices

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Medium 9781622500291

At the Hospital

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

AT  THE HOSPITAL

How many “hospital words” do you know? Match each vocabulary word with a clue. Write the word on the crossword puzzle. admitting imaging

ambulance outpatient

CAT scan recovery

ACROSS

critical emergency surgery MRI

3

2

1

2. the operating room

4. Patients entering the hospital register in the

___ department.

4

5

6

7

6. short for Magnetic

Resonance Imaging; like a high-tech X-ray

8. Immediate treatment for accident victims is provided in the

___ room.

8

9

9. special type of X-ray that uses a computer to show soft parts of the body

DOWN

1. one who receives hospital care but does not stay overnight

3. Right after surgery, patients rest in the ___ room.

4. special vehicle for carrying sick or injured people

5. Extremely sick patients may be cared for in the ___ care unit.

7. In the ___ department, X-rays,

CAT scans, and MRIs produce images of the body’s insides.

CHALLENGE!  Think about the people you would find working in a hospital.

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Medium 9781523094073

6. Just Say Hello, Leo

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

HELLO: THE FIRST WORD TOWARD WORLD PEACE

“I look like a serial killer.”

This is what Leo said after seeing our initial interview on video.

He was right. His immobile face, squint, and lack of expressive gesture were matched with the most minimal of verbal responses offered in a flat tone of voice. I glanced to make sure the door was partially open to the hallway.

Leo had experienced a life of social failure. Though highly educated, no one wanted to hire him at his professional level. With an Ivy League PhD, he was working at a cow-town bachelor’s-level job and had bitter stories about painful experiences, rejections, and a general lack of appreciation in the workplace. He was not on speaking terms with any family members. Enemies were plentiful; good friends and girlfriends, not so much.

He was equally frustrated in his living quarters. Indeed, that was what occasioned his appointment with me. His homeowners’ association (HOA) had voted to allow people to exercise their dogs in the grassy area right under his window. The dogs barked, the people talked, and Leo felt put upon and was seething with resentment. He had sent letters to the HOA leadership, but they apparently did nothing.

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Medium 9781574411713

4: The Repeal of Bilingual Education 2001

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

THE FINAL PUSH, 1990S

87

spending for the 2002 fiscal year that began October 1, a roughly $7 billion increase over 2001. It set up a comprehensive testing system to identity failing schools and needy students. It also stipulated that failing schools would receive resources to get them back on track, and that students could be offered the option of transferring to another public school or could get tutoring or other supplemental services.36

On January 8, 2002, President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind

Act of 2001 (H.R. 1) into law.37 This legislation amended and reauthorized the ESEA for the next six years. It also reauthorized the BEA of

1994. The former bilingual education act, known as Title VII of the

ESEA, is now Title III of the No Child Left Behind Act. Its official title is

“Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant

Children.”

THE REPEAL OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION, 2001

Title III represents a major overhaul of federal programs for the education of English Language Learners, or as the Bush administration calls them, limited English proficient and recent immigrant students. More particularly, it officially repeals bilingual education and replaces it with an English-only piece of legislation.

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Medium 9781574411713

Conclusion: Contextual Forces in Bilingual Education

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

CONCLUSION

105

of an English-only instructional program known as Special Alternative

Instructional Programs (SAIP).23 Funding was guaranteed for SAIP but not for the others. During the next decade, guaranteed funding for SAIP increased from ten to twenty-five percent of total bilingual education funds. Despite this gradual increase, the opponents of bilingual education continued to seek more drastic changes.24

In the first half of the 1990s, the election of President Clinton to the

White House, a Democrat and a strong supporter of bilingual education, temporarily halted the opposition’s efforts. However, during the second half of the decade, and as a result of the control by Republicans of both chambers of Congress in 1996 and the election of Republican George W.

Bush to the White House in 2000, congressional opponents renewed their attempts to change bilingual education policy. In 2001, they succeeded in enacting a new bill with most of the provisions that they had wanted for a decade. This legislation, the No Child Left Behind Act, amended and reauthorized the ESEA for the next six years.25 It authorized $26.5 billion in federal spending for the 2002 fiscal year that began October 1, a roughly $7 billion increase over 2001. It set up a comprehensive testing system to identity failing schools and needy students and stipulated that failing schools would get resources to get them back on track.26

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Medium 9781626560475

Contents

Hough, Karen Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub
Medium 9780253019417

4 “The Validity of Navajo Is in Its Sounds”: On Hymes, Navajo Poetry, Punning, and the Recognition of Voice

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub

Anthony K. Webster

If we are to understand a fair part of linguistic change, comprehend the use of language in speech and verbal art, take account of all the varied speech play in which a competent speaker may indulge, and to which he can respond, we must study his real and lively sense of appropriate connection between sound and meaning.

—Dell Hymes (1960, 112)

WHILE DELL HYMESS (1981, 1996b, 1998, 2003) conception of ethnopoetics often seemed overly focused on recognition of structuring patterns of discourse and their hierarchical relations (e.g., lines, verses, stanzas, acts), another recurring theme in Hymes’s (1979; 1981, 65–76; 1984, 174–76; 1996a; 1998, 19–20; 2000, 299–300; 2003) ethnopoetic work was his concern with expressive or presentational features of language. This focus was most masterfully and famously taken up in his essay “How to Talk Like a Bear in Takelma” (Hymes 1979, later revised in Hymes 1981).1 But as the epigraph illustrates, a concern with expressive features was presaged by his earlier work on the “nexus between sound and meaning” in English sonnets (Hymes 1960, 111). Implicit and often explicit in this work was a critique of a linguistics discipline overly enamored with reference that ignored or erased such expressive features in linguistic descriptions (and thus promoted a monotelic view of language—see Hymes 2000, 334 and 1968, 362).

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