657 Chapters
Medium 9781786394583

The Effects of a Nutritional Supplement (Solliquin) in Reducing Fear and Anxiety in a Laboratory Model of Thunder-induced Fear and Anxiety

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

The Effects of a Nutritional

Supplement (Solliquin) in

Reducing Fear and Anxiety in a

Laboratory Model of Thunderinduced Fear and Anxiety

Gary Landsberg1*, Scott Huggins2, Julie Fish3 and

Norton W. Milgram1

CanCog Technologies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Nutramax Laboratories

Veterinary Science Inc, Lancaster, South Carolina, USA; 3Vivocore Inc.,

Fergus, Ontario, Canada

1

Funding: This project was funded as contract research by Nutramax Laboratories to

CanCog Technologies.

Conflict of interest: Scott Huggins is an employee of Nutramax Laboratories.

Keywords: dog, l-theanine, Magnolia officinalis, Phellodendron amurense, noise-induced anxiety

Introduction

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutritional supplement in reducing the anxiety response of Beagle dogs in a thunderstorm test model of noise-induced anxiety after one day of test article administration and after a double dose of the product following 7 days of administration. The supplement (Solliquin) is a nutraceutical intended for relief of clinical signs associated with fear, anxiety and stress, which contains a proprietary blend of l-theanine, extracts of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense, as well as a whey protein concentrate previously found to have anti-anxiety effects. (Araujo et al., 2010;

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Medium 9781780642994

20 Building Nutritional Self-reliance

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

20

Building Nutritional Self-reliance

George Kent*

University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

Summary

Nutritional self-reliance refers to the capacity of individuals and communities to make their own good decisions relating to their nutrition. The issue is important because some nutrition interventions weaken the abilities and motivations of people to provide for themselves. This disempowerment can result from the ways in which commodities are provided, and also from the ways in which information is assembled and decisions are made. Agencies should favour programmes that strengthen people’s capacity to define, analyse and act on their own problems, and thus help to build individual and community self-reliance with regard to nutrition.

Introduction

Nutrition programmes are commonly evaluated on the basis of their impacts on anthropometric measures such as children’s stunting, underweight and birth weight.

However, nutrition programmes for children or families sometimes weaken the abilities and motivations of people to provide for themselves, especially when those programmes last too long. Interventions to deal with malnutrition should be assessed not only in anthropometric terms, but also in terms of their impact on nutritional self-reliance – the capacity of individuals and communities to make their own good decisions relating to their nutrition.

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Medium 9781786394583

Hair Cortisol in Cats as a Measure of Chronic Stress: A Pilot Study Under Controlled Conditions

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Hair Cortisol in Cats as a Measure of Chronic Stress: A Pilot Study

Under Controlled Conditions

Marta Amat1, Ana García2, Camino García-Morato1*,

Déborah Temple1, Susana Le Brech1, Tomàs Camps1 and Xavier Manteca1

School of Veterinary Medicine (Autonomous University of Barcelona),

Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Spain; 2ENVIGO CRS, S.A.U. Centro

Industrial Santiga, Barcelona, Spain

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: cats, chronic stress, hair cortisol

Introduction

Stress-related problems are a major welfare issue in cats. Hair cortisol has been proposed as a measure to assess the long-term activity of the hypothalamic–­ pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA). In this study, we measured hair cortisol in cats kept under controlled conditions.

Material and Methods

Thirty-six domestic shorthair cats were included in this study. Cats had been housed in groups separated by gender to reduce aggressive behaviour before commencing the study. The study was divided into two phases. In Phase I, which lasted for 3 months, cats were individually housed in cages, whereas in Phase II, cats were housed in groups, separated by sex, in two different rooms. A hair sample was collected from each animal at the beginning and at the end of Phase I

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Medium 9781780644479

3: Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

3 

Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in

Drug Delivery

Neerupma Dhiman*

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, India

Abstract

The application of hydrocolloids in pharmaceutical formulations includes their use in the manufacture of

­implants, films, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, and inhalable and injectable systems, as well as viscous

­liquid formulations. The biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of hydrocolloid-based hydrogels and their importance are the highlights of this chapter.

Introduction

The design and development of new drug molecules is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Later, they have to be transported in the human and/or animal body and in this regard the drug delivery is an important process.

It is the method of administering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The controlled delivery systems or controlled release technology (CRT) provide release at a predetermined, predictable and controlled rate to achieve high therapeutic efficiency with minimal toxicity (Pandey et al., 2012). Hence, the development of novel drug delivery vehicles is an essential step towards controlled and site-­ specific administration of therapeutics. The desirable characteristics are that these should be introduced into the body through minimally invasive means and that these vehicles should

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21 What Does It Mean to Have an Assigned Sex?

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

Long before birth certificates existed, babies were assigned their sex by examination of their external genitals: a penis and scrotum defined a male; a vagina and female pudenda defined a female. Children were then raised as infant boys or infant girls. They were assigned roles expected of their community. These varied. Some societies had both sexes involved in the same activities (e.g., butchering, farming, making tools) and some had one sex specialized in a division of labor. For almost all societies, until late in the twentieth century, raising infants was primarily and necessarily a female role, because women nursed babies. Things changed as the child got older. Fathers may have played significant roles teaching boys how to hunt if that was an assigned male role in that community. Some groups heeded the advice of older men and others heeded the advice of older women. Women in general were midwives delivering children until the eighteenth century in industrialized countries. Each society had a response to exceptions to the expected roles and sexuality assigned at birth. The larger the group was, the more these unusual events occurred, and the more society had to find explanations for them and ways to accommodate them. Those responses varied with religion and other traditions. It is characteristic of humans to generalize from a relatively small sample size.

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