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Medium 9781574411522

12 Religion

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter twelve

religion

I

f adversity draws one closer to the Lord, the skies over most prisons should be ringing with hymns and the fences humming with prayer. Most convicts were not religious people before coming to jail—that truth is evident in their reckless, hurtful, selfish actions. However, the Lord is active in Texas prisons. Inmates who wish to pursue a spiritual awakening are extended almost every opportunity to do so. TDCJ extends quite a bit of freedom to inmates for them to pursue individual beliefs and practices.

All inmates are encouraged to believe, worship, and to study their particular religion. Participation in any worship is voluntary, unless an inmate is assigned to one of the pre-release units that has a focus on spiritual fellowship as a foundation for rehabilitation, such as the Carol Vance Unit, which houses the Inner Change Faith-Based Treatment Program.

Many things contribute to the degree of religious freedom and array of religious activities on a particular unit: the dedication of the unit chaplains; the involvement of community volunteers; the religious beliefs of the warden. In any case, this is one area where what TDCJ practices often exceed what its policy requires.

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 13: Game Wardens

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 13

Game Wardens

Introduction

Many Criminal Justice students aspire to the position of Wildlife Law Enforcement Officer, or Game Warden. The idea of working outdoors in a natural environment, protecting animals, and working with hunters and ranchers seems very appealing. Many students, however, do not fully understand the duties that will fall on them should they attain this position.

Game wardens are involved in water safety, public education programs, Homeland Security programs, and court duties. They respond to natural disasters and provide assistance to other law enforcement agencies.1 In fact game wardens may have the widest variety of duties of any law enforcement position discussed in this volume.

History of the Position

From as early as 1016 there have been laws regulating wildlife and the lands where the animals live. These early laws helped to protect the wildlife, not for its own sake, but for the value the wildlife had as property of the king or landholder. Killing of a king’s stag for instance could result in the death penalty.2

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 7 – Medical/Dental

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER SEVEN

medical and dental facilities

Because the medical care received in prison is such an important issue, this chapter is broken into two parts. The second, Appendix B, is taken word-for-word from the TDCD-ID Comprehensive Health Manual, and it outlines what services are available to Texas inmates. As you will see, they are impressive and are an enormously welcome improvement from the shockingly negligent system in place before Ruiz.

However, there is a huge gulf between what services are available and what services are actually provided. Many factors influence the quality of prison medicine, and the single biggest is the attitude I referred to in chapter one—the system cares little for inmates’ welfare except when it is possible that staff negligence may result in an inmate’s injury and death, and the system will then be held liable.

In this chapter I will again refer to Judge Justice’s March 1, 1999 order in Ruiz v. Johnson, 37 F. Supp 2d and 55 (S. D. Tex. 1999.) While Judge Justice did not find the medical practices unconstitutional, the testimony of expert and inmate witnesses, and the admissions of medical personnel and TDCJ officials, will help illustrate some of the problems I will point out.

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Medium 9781574411638

Whitworth

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Whitworth

Sir Joseph Whitworth designed a family of rifles and projectiles generally recognized as the most accurate and longest range of any used in the war. In a Union Army test reported in 1864, a 2.75-inch Whitworth bolt was fired 10,000 yards.1

The design was unique among Civil War projectiles. All Whitworth projectiles regardless of caliber had six concave sides with a twist matching the twist of the hexagonal rifle bore. The windage on these projectiles is smaller than that in any other period projectile: no more than about 2/1000 inch. Normal windage on large caliber projectiles ranged from 5/100 to 10/100 for rifled projectiles to as much as 20/100 for large smoothbores.2

Both Union and Confederate forces used Whitworth rifles and projectiles. The

Confederates obtained the rifles in several calibers and used the field calibers much more frequently than the Union did. Wartime provenance has been established for large caliber use by Confederates in 3.75-inch calibers. They almost received a shipment of 6.4-inch

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Medium 9781603446938

Part 1 Learning the Basics

Rudolph A. Rosen Texas A&M University Press ePub

I recently attended an auction-event fundraiser where I was told a story similar to many I had heard before. An executive director of a nonprofit organization told me of a colleague in charge of an annual auction event that typically raises about $125,000. The organization holding the event was small, so $125,000 in event revenue sounded like a successful event to me. He said his colleague was frustrated with the event, because the net proceeds were only about $30,000 and the event was a lot of work. It was obvious why the event planner was frustrated. Spending $95,000 to raise $125,000 is not a very efficient way to raise money for a nonprofit organization.

Poor management of expenses at an event breaks faith with attendees who believe they are giving money that goes to the mission-related work of the host organization. Attendees took $125,000 out of their wallets and gave it to the organization during the event. They surely thought the dollars they spent would help the organization hosting the event. Instead, most of the money raised was used to pay expenses of holding the event.

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Nonprofit Resources for Nonprofits

Rudolph A. Rosen Texas A&M University Press ePub

The following nonprofit organizations, media, and agencies provide support and offer resources such as books and training to support nonprofit organizations’ fundraising and other essential functions, for example, board support, membership, administration, and general management.

Alliance for Nonprofit Management, San Francisco, CA
http://www.allianceonline.org

American Society of Association Executives, Washington, DC
http://www.asaecenter.org

Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Indianapolis, IN
http://www.arnova.org

Association of Fundraising Professionals, Arlington, VA
http://www.afpnet.org/

The Center on Philanthropy & Public Policy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
http://cppp.usc.edu

Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN
http://www.philanthropy.iupui.edu

The Chronicle of Philanthropy, Washington, DC
http://philanthropy.com

Council on Foundations, Arlington, VA
http://www.cof.org

Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI
http://www.gvsu.edu/jcp/home-45.htm

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 2: Becoming a Texas Peace Officer

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 2

Becoming a Texas Peace Officer

Although great variety exists in Texas law enforcement positions and duties, every peace officer in the state, regardless of position, must meet the same initial requirements. Each officer starts out on the same basic footing and then begins their unique adventure in the world of law enforcement.

Qualifying as a Peace Officer in the State of Texas

In the state of Texas, all peace officers and reserves must hold a license through the Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education (TCLEOSE). Created by the 59th Texas Legislature on September 1, 1965, TCLEOSE ensures peace officers across the state of Texas are able to meet the demands of a law enforcement career.1

Beyond just issuing licenses to peace officers, TCLEOSE now sets eligibility standards, develops training curriculum for academies and continuing education providers, and enforces standards for peace officers, academies, and other associated professionals. TCLEOSE also processes license revocations and training and employment records.2

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Medium 9781574411638

Schenkl

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Schenkl

John P. Schenkl designed extremely effective rifled projectiles and percussion fuzes that were favored by both the Union Army and Navy. The shell body strongly tapers to the rear, maintaining a forward center of gravity that is helpful to flight stability. The sabot is unique among Civil War projectiles: a papier-maché cup that covered the tapered portion of the shell except the last inch on the base knob. For some reason, Schenkl was unwilling or unable to obtain a patent on the projectile and sabot design. Perhaps it was his concern about someone copying the formula. In any event, he kept the formula secret and it was apparently not even known by his wife or the foundry that cast the shells,

Cyrus Alger. The secret formula gave the papier-maché a structure that would firmly take the rifling, but would not generally absorb excessive amounts of moisture and swell up so the shell could not be rammed down the barrel.

The Schenkl projectile was popular for several reasons. General Abbot reported that it flew smoother and more accurately than the Parrott, and that the sabot provided no danger to forward troops.1 The fuze was also prized by Union Navy and Army troops.

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Medium 9781574411522

23 The Echo

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter twenty-three

the echo

T

he Echo is the Texas Prison Newspaper—our newspaper. It is tabloid-sized and published every month or two, then distributed via truck mail to the units and then to the living quarters. The Echo has been published more or less continuously since 1928 and has a circulation of

100,000 or so, giving it some standing among Texas papers.

The Echo’s contents can be divided into three types of articles: reprints of penal-related stores written for other papers; occasional columns or editorials written by the Echo’s staff; and recognition-type pieces: graduation notices, results of sports tournaments, and similar short articles submitted by inmates.

There is a Letters to the Editor page, and an advice column written by a mystery convict. This columnist, who like Madonna and Elvis has reached first-name status—Dear Darby—offers sarcastic and hilarious advice to letters that are genuine but often sound made-up. His column is a tradition and undoubtedly the most-read part of any given issue.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 19 – Drugs

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER NINETEEN

drugs

In March of 1995, TDCJ outlawed the use of tobacco products on all of its units, by both guards and inmates. Trumpeted as a cost-saving measure, the move probably did save the system millions of dollars. Building interiors no longer needed the constant repainting due to layers of smoke scum. The damage done by incidental, and sometimes intentional, fires was eliminated. Convicts suffering from asthma, emphysema, and other lung ailments could literally breathe easier, and convicts’ health improved overall, dropping the system’s medical cost.

One totally unintended consequence of the new tobacco policy was a sharp decline in drug trafficking, as the convicts who sold drugs—and the guards who smuggled them—realized the enormous profits and relatively low risks of now trafficking tobacco. While drugs are still available—especially on the units where older convicts retain their lifelong addiction to heroin—the businessmen who maintained the large operations now deal tobacco, not cocaine or marijuana.

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Chapter 14: District Attorney/County Attorney Investigators

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 14

District Attorney/County Attorney Investigators

Introduction

Across the state of Texas, there are varieties of specialized investigator positions held by licensed peace officers. Many positions are so specialized that only one or two persons in the state hold them. Some special positions appear to hold authorization by statute and yet are not used anywhere. Death Investigators appear to fit this description. Texas state law authorizes their employment by coroners or medical examiners, but it appears very few if any exist.

The best example of a specialized investigator position may be within District Attorney and County Attorney Offices. This is certainly the investigative area with the most licensed peace officers.

History and Development

Each county in the state of Texas having a County or District Attorney had to acquire authorization to create such an office from the governor. Authorization appears to have depended on the population growth and the growth in crime in each county. Once the office existed, authorization to hire additional personnel such as investigators followed the normal growth path of other government agencies. Need did not always translate into authorization, and many offices still find themselves understaffed.

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Chapter 22 – Emergencies

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO

what to do in emergencies

This topic was the birthing idea for this book. In January of 1993, my brother fell ill and my family was not only unsure how to contact me—they did not know the procedure to follow so that I might attend his funeral after he died. This hurt my family and myself deeply, that I could not be there to receive and give comfort. The Texas prison system places many conditions on this type of furlough, but it is allowed. But in such a situation, time is of the essence. If you want to get your relative out in time to see his dying mother, or to attend a memorial service for his daughter, then you must follow TDCJ guidelines, especially the guidelines that specify the people authorized to contact TDCJ with the details of a situation.

For TDCJ officials, this is an issue loaded with problems. Most state officials are sincerely sorry when tragedy befalls the family members of convicts and they do not want to seem heartless. However, security is a priority, and the system cannot allow just anyone to call and say, “John Doe’s mom is dying, can you let him come and see her? She’s his only relative.” While his mother may in fact be dying, and while she may in fact be his only relative, the state must have the paperwork to document her illness from a reputable physician in case the inmate is furloughed and something goes wrong during the furlough. He can commit a crime, try to escape, get into a violent episode during the ceremony, or be involved in any of a number of incidents that will reflect poorly on everyone involved.

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Appendix I – Resource List

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

APPENDIX I

Resource List

Following is a list of some organizations that offer services and assistance to prisoners and their families. Many of them offer other resource lists, generally in an area related to what services they extend. By asking them for resource lists, you can build a network of organizations suited to your particular needs.

Texas Inmate Families Association

(TIFA)

P.O. Box 181253

Austin, TX 78718-1253

(512) 695-3031

www.tifa.org

Advocacy group that provides support and resources for families of Texas prisoners. This organization works directly with prisoners’ family members, not prisoners. Has chapters throughout Texas and lobbies for change in the legislature, and often meets with top prison officials.

Info, Inc.

Inmate Families Organization, Inc.

P.O. Box 788

Manchaca, TX 78652

www.flash.net/infoinc

Advocacy group similar to TIFA, although newer.

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 8: University Police

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 8

University Police

Introduction

Of all the law enforcement positions covered in this book, readers are probably most familiar with campus police. Most likely readers are now or were at some point college students and, therefore, had at least limited exposure to campus police.

College campuses are supposed to be places where people go to learn new things and explore their futures. Parents sending a child to college for the first time tend to be reasonably concerned about their child’s safety. The college student may also have concerns for their safety. This is where campus police can play a major role.

History of the Position

University police departments cover a wide variety of institutions including two-year colleges, four-year colleges, universities, and medical schools. In 2004, there were 764 such agencies across the country, employing 14,416 full-time, sworn officers.1

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Medium 9781574411522

Appendix A Custody Levels

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix A

Custody Levels

The following explains what custody levels exist in TDCJ-ID (Institutional Division), and gives a brief summary of the privileges allowed at each level. For a more detailed idea of the levels and privileges, see the chapters on Money, Recreation, and Segregation.

1. Minimum out, State Approved Trusty I—Eligible for four contact visits each month. Can work outside without direct supervision except for sporadic check-ups. May be assigned to trusty camp. Maximum allowed on recreation, commissary, and property privileges.

2. Minimum out, Line I—Same as above, except that may be from

Line I to SAT II.

3. Minimum out, restricted—May be from Line I to SAT II. Eligible for same privileges as above. Must have direct unarmed supervision while outside the fence and cannot live in trusty camp.

4. Minimum in—May be from Line I to SAT III. Must have direct, armed supervision if outside fence. Maximum privileges on commissary, recreation, and property. Allowed from one to three contact visits monthly, depending on SAT status.

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