1112 Chapters
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12. Eschatology in the Theology of Paul Tillich and the Toronto Blessing: The Ontological and Relational Implications of Love

Edited by Nimi Wariboko and Amos Yong Indiana University Press ePub

Pentecostal theologians seldom select Paul Tillich as a dialogue partner in their discussions of eschatology. Tillich’s eschatology is an ontological theology in which the rhythm of life passes from essence through estranged existence to essentialization in New Being (ST 3.421).1 Spiritual Presence, Kingdom of God, and Eternal Life are symbolic indicators that point to possibilities for essential fulfillment as the kairos moments of eternity impinge on the historical process. Alternatively, pentecostalism is a multidimensional movement that has a variety of eschatological positions, including latter rain eschatology, dispensational millennialism, as well as different kinds of inaugural and realized eschatologies. In this chapter, I will discuss the stream of pentecostalism known as the Toronto Blessing, recently branded Catch the Fire, in relation to Tillich’s kairos eschatology. Specifically, Tillich’s eschatological symbols of Spiritual Presence, Kingdom of God, and Eternal Life offer a theological framework for understanding the eschatological developments in Catch the Fire. Conversely, Catch the Fire’s emphasis on relational love as the sign of the manifestation of the kingdom of God in ecstatic “signs and wonders” suggests avenues for the realization of divine presence in the concreteness of human existence.

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5 Fighting for the Saint: Ritual Rivalries in Traditional Pilgrimages

Giacalone, F.; Griffin, K. CABI PDF


Fighting for the Saint: Ritual Rivalries in Traditional Pilgrimages

Laurent S. Fournier*

IDEMEC UMR 7307 CNRS, Aix-Marseille-University, Aix-en-Provence, France


Anthropologists and historians of local pilgrimages often talk about more or less ritualized outbursts of violence expressing customary

­ rivalries among parishes. During local pilgrimages, the pilgrims often settled their quarrels; they often fought for the honour of serving the saint of the day. First, I propose to examine in this chapter some examples of ritual battles happening in local pilgrimages. From the point of view of the touristic valorization of contemporary pilgrimages, such a historical legacy raises many questions. The study of the ways civil and religious authorities accept or do not accept this history will be undertaken in the next part of the ­chapter.  I will show that pilgrimages are not limited to their religious content but are also occasions to express political or social antagonisms.

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8. Rethinking the Holocaust after Post-Holocaust Theology: Uniqueness, Exceptionalism, and the Renewal of American Judaism

Shaul Magid Indiana University Press ePub

Who knows, it might even be our religion from which the world and all peoples learn good, and for that reason only do we suffer now.

—Anne Frank, Diary entry, April 11, 1944

There are few things in contemporary American Judaism that are as significant, and as confusing, as the Holocaust. By the “Holocaust” I do not only mean the historical event that took place in Europe from 1939–1945 that resulted in the genocide of six million Jews and untold millions of others.1 Rather, I mean the cataclysmic phenomenon, including the reception and memorialization of that historical event that reshaped Jewish identity and recalibrated the place of the Jew in American society. The Holocaust became a lens, in Emil Fackenheim's assessment, an “epoch-making event” a “commanding voice” (the voice of Auschwitz) refracting all that came before it (the voice of Sinai).2 Thus any reflection on Judaism in the present or future must address the Holocaust as a historical event and its place in the American Jewish consciousness.

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8 Salvation: The Goal of Religion

Mel Scult Indiana University Press ePub


Salvation is unhampered freedom in living and helping others to live a courageous, intelligent, righteous and purposeful life.

—Mordecai Kaplan, “Soterics”

Salvation is generally considered a Christian term. Although it appears in the Hebrew scriptures (yeshua), this basic theological concept has never occupied a central place in rabbinic or in modern Jewish thought. Nevertheless, as we have seen, it was axiomatic in Kaplan’s system from the very beginning. Though others bristled at the word, Kaplan was quite comfortable with it. Indeed, we might say that salvation for Kaplan was as important as God. He cared desperately about salvation and how to incorporate it into Jewish life. Although he thought about God all the time, Kaplan was not addicted to metaphysics, as so many theologians are. When he thought about God, it was in terms of the meaning of God for the life of the individual and the community; as we shall see, over his lifetime, Kaplan would offer numerous formulations of this complex concept, but every one revolved around the creation of meaning, in both its individual and communal manifestations.

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20 The Extermination of Gypsies

Yitzhak Arad Indiana University Press ePub

The Gypsies originated in northern India and are part of the Indo-Germanic Aryan race. The Gypsies left India over 1,000 years ago and came to Europe through Asia Minor to the Balkan peninsula. They reached Central Europe in the fifteenth century. They did not constitute a homogeneous people, but split into tribes, each with its own king, dialect, and beliefs. Eventually, they adopted Christianity. During the generations of wandering over Europe as nomadic tribes, they endured prejudice, expulsions from one country to another, and persecutions. Anti-Gypsy laws and restrictions were imposed on them in many countries, particularly in Germany and Austria.

For Nazi Germany the Gypsies became a racist dilemma. The Gypsies were Aryans, but in the Nazi mind there were contradictions between what they regarded as the superiority of the Aryan race and their image of the Gypsies. Their treatment of the Gypsies was an indication of the lack of sincerity with which the Nazis regarded their racial theories. Nazi racial “specialists” and “scientists” had to find a way to prove that Gypsies were not Aryans and thus lay the ideological basis for their persecution. It was not an easy task, as they had to deny ethnographic and anthropologic facts. But Professor Hans Gunther, a leading Nazi racial scientist, found a definition that could solve the Nazis’ racial dilemma. He wrote:

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