1663 Chapters
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Medium 9781780645216

8: Bacillus thuringiensis: a Natural Tool in Insect Pest Control

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

8 

Bacillus thuringiensis: a Natural Tool in Insect Pest Control

Javier Hernández-Fernández*

Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogotá, Colombia

Abstract

Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, ubiquitous, spore-forming bacterium that produces large amounts of proteins that crystallize inside the cell during the sporulation stage known as B. thuriniensis delta-endotoxins or

Cry proteins. The insecticidal Cry proteins produced by B. thuringiensis have provided a particular, secure and

­effective tool for the control of a wide diversity of insect pests around the world for over 70 years. The Cry proteins are lethal to insect larvae in the orders Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera. More recently, isolates have been identified with activity against the organisms in the orders Hymenoptera, Homoptera, Orthoptera and Mallophaga and also nematodes, mites, lice and protozoa. Furthermore, in the global biopesticide market B. thuringiensis represents nearly US$600 million/year. At least 900 different Cry toxin sequences have been found and classified into 73 family groups (by 2014). Biotechnology and genetic manipulation of cry genes present in B. thuringiensis can potentially improve the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of B. thuringiensis-based commercial products. The combination of genes from different B. thuringiensis strains to enhance their activity, extend their host range and improve the spectrum of insecticidal activity has been achieved with recombinant technologies. These genetically modified B. thuringiensis products are currently commercially available. It has been recently established that Cry hybrid proteins of B. thuringiensis, gained by domain swapping, resulted in enhanced toxicities when compared with wild-type proteins. Nowadays, B. thuringiensis insecticidal genes have been included in several of the most important crop plants where they provide a model for biotechnology in agriculture. The B. thuringiensis transgenic crop has received more attention in cases where cry genes have been brought together by a mixture of mutagenesis and oligonucleotide synthesis to produce synthetic genes. In this chapter, manipulation of Cry proteins from the soil bacterium B. thuringiensis and its biotechnological applications are described. The future prospects are also discussed.

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Medium 9781780646688

APPENDIX 2: FERTIGATION AND DRIP IRRIGATION PRIMER

Hall, H.K.; Funt, R.C. CABI PDF

Appendix 2: Fertigation and

Drip Irrigation Primer

David S. Ross1* and Richard C. Funt2

1University

of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA; 2Ohio State

University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

The topic of fertigation involves water quality, making and using stock solutions, selecting and using delivery equipment, calibration of delivery equipment, irrigation system considerations, and crop considerations. All of these will be discussed in this Appendix.

Fertigation is an important part of crop production and is the process of applying one or more agricultural plant nutrients through an irrigation system to the crop’s root zone to meet a portion of a crop’s fertilizer needs.

A concentrated solution of nutrients known as a stock solution is used.

Through this liquid feed method, nutrients may be applied as needed for maintaining good crop growth, as long as irrigation water can be applied. A welldesigned drip irrigation system with uniform water application can provide an excellent partner for utilizing fertigation with a blackberry production system in the field, a high tunnel, or a greenhouse (see Chapter 10, Fig. 10.2)

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Medium 9781786392015

10 Solar Power

Henderson, P. CABI PDF

10

Solar Power

Solar generators can be divided into two broad types, photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. The scale of PV generation varies greatly from single panel systems to recharge a battery via individual house rooftop PV arrays (Fig. 10.1) to large utility-scale PV and CSP projects. The ecological impacts of solar generation have been reviewed by Tsoutsos et al. (2005).1 As the installed capacity increases and operational experience expands, it is likely that ecological impacts and concerns will also increase.

Photovoltaic Generation

We are all becoming familiar with solar panels fitted on our houses, farm outbuildings, commercial buildings and boats. There is also a steadily growing number of larger-scale facilities. Photovoltaic cells use light to generate electricity. A variety of panel designs are available, including polycrystalline, monocrystalline and thin-film. The technology is rapidly developing and new designs are continually being tested. It is now possible to install PV roof tiles.

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Medium 9781780643663

12 Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Production through Water-saving Techniques: Potential, Adoption and Empirical Evidence

Hoanh, C.T.; Smakhtin, V.; Johnston, R. CABI PDF

12

Mitigating Greenhouse

Gas Emissions from Rice

Production through Water-saving

Techniques: Potential, Adoption and Empirical Evidence

Bjoern Ole Sander,* Reiner Wassmann and Joel

D.L.C. Siopongco

Crop and Environmental Sciences Division, International Rice

Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baños, Philippines

Abstract

Flooded rice fields are a large anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas (GHG) methane (CH4). Aeration of the paddy field can reduce methane emissions and at the same time save water. Different forms of water saving techniques (WST), e.g. alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and midseason drainage (MSD), have been developed and disseminated. This article gives an overview on adoption of AWD in the Philippines and assesses prospects and constraints. It also explains the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) methodology for rice production and analyses the mitigation potential of WST in the form of a literature review.

The adoption rate of AWD strongly depends on the incentive for the farmer. While direct monetary incentives are limited to areas where saving water is directly linked to reduced costs (e.g. pump irrigation systems), indirect incentives (e.g. improved crop development) have not yet been scientifically assessed. The literature meta-analysis proves the great mitigation potential of WST. Methane emissions can be reduced by an average of 36.5% with a single drainage and by 43% with multiple aerations. Nitrous oxide emissions increase under all WST but this increase does not offset the reduction in CH4 emissions. This study also shows that the amount of GHG emissions can vary drastically between different regions. This poses a challenge for the transfer of mitigation strategies from one region to another.

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Medium 9781780648378

6: Rootstocks and Improvement

Quero-Garcia, J.; Iezzoni, A.; Pulawska, J. CABI PDF

6 

Rootstocks and Improvement

Károly Hrotkó1* and Elz˙bieta Rozpara2

Faculty of Horticultural Science, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary;

2

Research Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice, Poland

1

6.1 Introduction

Rootstocks for cherries are chosen from among taxa showing appropriate graft compatibility. Considering this criteria, Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus mahaleb and Prunus fruticosa, as well as their hybrids and some related taxa, can be used as rootstocks.

Further factors that influence rootstock use are the diverse pedoclimatic conditions in the different sites. Rootstocks remain important tools for extending the site adaptability of sweet and sour cherry cultivars, and also allow growers to plant cherries in suboptimal sites. Although modern sweet cherry orchard systems, the so-called ‘pedestrian orchards’, require dwarfing and precocious rootstocks, the rootstocks used in sweet and sour cherry orchards are still diverse. The training system and rootstock must be considered together, and matched properly with the vigour of the soil fertility and climate of the orchard site. Growers of intensive orchards, producing hand-picked cherries for fresh market, prefer dwarfing rootstocks, which allow planting densities of up to 1000–5000 trees ha–1 (Robinson,

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Medium 9781780642635

28: Delivering Innovative Solutions and Paradigms for a Changing Environment

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF

28 

Delivering Innovative Solutions and

Paradigms for a Changing Environment

J.P.F. D’Mello*

Formerly of SAC (Scottish Agricultural College), University of Edinburgh

King’s Buildings Campus, Edinburgh, UK

28.1  Abstract

Recent advances in the fundamental disciplines of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics and ecological

­sciences have provided the impetus for the publication of Amino Acids in Higher Plants. The choice of contributors to this volume underlines the diversity of research interests in a rapidly evolving field. The purpose here is to highlight the salient issues raised in the foregoing chapters with a view to providing an integrated model of amino acid metabolism in higher plants. A review of the main conclusions should serve as a salutary reflection of achievements so far, while also providing the basis for unlocking the full potential of emerging developments.

The quantitative and obligatory demands for amino acids in primary metabolism have long been recognized and continue to be the focus of current research. However, considerable attention has recently been devoted to the relationships of amino acids with signal transduction and defence metabolism in plants subjected to stress.

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Medium 9781780642635

21: Melatonin: Synthesis From Tryptophan and its Role in Higher Plants

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF

21 

Melatonin: Synthesis

From Tryptophan and its Role in Higher Plants

M.B. Arnao* and J. Hernández-Ruiz

University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain

21.1 Abstract

Melatonin, a well-known neurohormone, was discovered in animal tissues in 1958. In plants, its presence was detected in 1995, and its biosynthesis, from tryptophan, seems to follow similar enzymatic steps in plant and animal cells, although with some very particular characteristics. Even though our knowledge of the biosynthetic enzymes of melatonin in plants is still taking its first steps, a greater plasticity has been observed in plant cells than in animal cells, as was to be expected. As they have been in animals, some catabolic products of the kynuric pathway have been determined in plants. Initially, melatonin was investigated to establish whether it had the same physiological function, as a chronoregulator, in plants as in animals. Its antioxidant properties have marked much of the research carried out into its possible physiological roles in both plants and animals. In plants, various studies have suggested more specific physiological actions, such as, for example, its roles as a plant growth regulator, an activator of rhizogenesis and a signal molecule/antioxidant in many plant stress situations. The melatonin levels that have been observed in different plant species vary widely – from picograms to micrograms per gram of tissue. The search for plant materials with high levels of melatonin has opened the door for its possible use as a nutraceutical for both humans and livestock. In addition, there has been great interest in the application of melatonin in agriculture to obtain more resistant crops and better harvests in adverse situations.

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Medium 9781780643540

15: Almond Diseases

Rafel Socias i Company; Gradziel, T.M. CABI PDF

15 

Almond Diseases

Ana Palacio-Bielsa1,*, Mariano Cambra2, Carmen Martínez2, Antonio Olmos2,

Vicente Pallás3, María M. López2, James E. Adaskaveg4, Helga Förster4,

Miguel A. Cambra5, Henri Duval6 and Daniel Esmenjaud7

1

Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain;

2

Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Valencia, Spain; 3Universidad

Politécnica de Valencia-CSIC, Valencia, Spain; 4University of California, Riverside,

California, USA; 5Centro de Sanidad y Certificación Vegetal, Zaragoza, Spain;

6

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Montfavet, France; 7Institut

National de la Recherche Agronomique, Sophia Antipolis, France

15.1 Introduction

section includes a review of the disease distribution and importance, the causal agent(s), sympThis chapter was coordinated by A. Palacio-­ toms useful for diagnosis, and ecological and epiBielsa and is the combined effort of expert plant demiological information, as well as integrated pathologists in Spain, the USA and France. The management practices. Although reference is aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of made to fungicides, too many compounds are up-to-date knowledge on major diseases affect- regulated differently worldwide and may not be ing almond, and it is intended to be applicable registered for the stated use in all countries.

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Medium 9780253356024

Soils

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

Table S-1. U.S. Soil Taxonomy

Notes: NCSS = National Cooperative Soil Survey; NOSS = Northwest Ohio Soil Survey; NRCS = Natural Resources Conservation Service; USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Source: Soil Survey Staff 1999.

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Medium 9781780642635

11: Serine Acetyltransferase

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF

11 

Serine Acetyltransferase

M. Watanabe,1* H.-M. Hubberten,1 K. Saito2,3 and R. Hoefgen1

1

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology,

Potsdam-Golm, Germany; 2Graduate School of Pharmaceutical

Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan; 3RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Yokohama, Japan

11.1 Abstract

Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plants. Sulfate, the major form of inorganic sulfur, is reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. Sulfide is integrated into ­organic compounds via cysteine

­biosynthesis. Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT, also called SAT; EC 2.3.1.30), which catalyses the formation of

O-acetylserine (OAS) from serine and acetyl coenzyme A, is responsible for the entry step from glycine-serine metabolism to cysteine biosynthesis. OAS, as activated serine, is the direct precursor of cysteine formation catalysed by O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase (OASTL; EC 4.2.99.8). OASTL incorporates sulfide into OAS essentially by exchanging the alcohol group of serine (-CH-OH) against a thiol group (-CH-SH), thus producing cysteine. Both the

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Medium 9781603442909

9

Buster, Noreen A. Texas A&M University Press ePub

David C. Twichell

The Mississippi Fan is a large, fine-grained, submarine fan that occupies approximately 300,000 km2 of the eastern part of the deep Gulf of Mexico basin (Fig. 9.1). The fan is Plio-Pleistocene in age and contains about 290,000 km3 of sediment that was eroded from the interior of the North American continent, carried by the Mississippi River system to the continental shelf, and transported from the continental shelf to the deep sea by a variety of gravity-driven transport processes (Barnes and Normark 1985). This fan was first recognized by Bates (1953) who described it as a submarine delta off the mouth of the Mississippi Canyon. His inferences were based on bathymetric maps created from widely spaced echo-sounding profiles (Shepard 1948; Treadwell 1949) and piston cores (Trask et al. 1947). A half-century after the fan was first recognized, a dense 2-D grid of seismic-reflection profiles (Feeley 1984; Stelting et al. 1986; EEZ Scan 85 Scientific Staff 1987; Weimer 1989), 9 Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes (Bouma et al. 1986), side-scan sonar imagery (Kastens and Shor 1985; EEZ Scan 85 Scientific Staff 1987; OConnell et al. 1991a; Twichell et al. 1991; Twichell et al. 1992), multibeam bathymetry (Paull et al. 1991; Liu and Bryant 2000), and submersible observations (Paull et al. 1984; Aharon et al. 1992) have been completed on and around the Mississippi Fan.

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Medium 9781780644202

19: Integration of In Vitro Techniques in Informal Seed Production Systems of Potato in Africa

Low, J. CABI PDF

19 

Integration of In Vitro Techniques in Informal Seed Production Systems of Potato in Africa

V.A. Kumar* and A. Kumar

GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar,

Uttarakhand, India

Abstract

Presently, Asia and Europe are the world’s major potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) producing regions,

­accounting for more than 80% of world production. Harvests in Africa and Latin America are far smaller, with productivity of around 11–12 t/ha and 16 t/ha, respectively, in comparison with North America where it is more than 40 t/ha. In Eastern Africa, potato has a high potential to raise smallholder income and improve food security. A minimal amount of seed potato is currently sourced from specialized multipliers, as farmers largely rely on farm/home-saved seed potatoes. This often makes economic sense in the absence of affordable high quality seed potatoes and limited market security. However, the common practice of farmers to use home-saved seed (informal seed) carries the risk of ‘concentrating’ seedborne pests, such as bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). In Africa, seed potato system interventions need to address the quality of specially multiplied and farm-saved seed potatoes simultaneously.

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Medium 9781845939076

19 Economics of Invasive Alien Species

CAB International PDF

19

Economics of Invasive Alien

Species

Vinish Kathuria1 and S.P. Singh2

1Associate

Professor, SJM School of Management, IIT Bombay,

Mumbai, India; 2Advisor, Planning Commission, Uttarakhand

State Institute of Technology and Science, SGRR Education

Mission, Dehradun, India

Introduction

Species – plants, animals and microbes – that spread to areas outside their native geographic locations are called nonindigenous species (NIS). Three fundamental drivers governing their spread are: (i) natural ecological process; (ii) trade in goods and services1 and movement of people; and (iii) conversion of land from forest to other uses.

Some of these NIS over time establish themselves as harmful invaders, termed invasive alien species (IAS)2 which, according to the Convention on Biological Diversity

(CBD), are ‘alien species whose introduction and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats, or species with socio-cultural, economic and/or environmental harm and/or harm to human health’.3 It has been estimated that of 256 vertebrate extinctions for which causes have been identified, 109 occurred due to biological invaders and 70 were caused by human exploitation (Cox, 1993, as cited in

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Medium 9780253008176

15. Aspects of Paleobiology of Mammaliaforms and Early Mammals

Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska Indiana University Press ePub

15.1. Reconstruction of Repenomamus robustus, a carnivorous mammal slightly more than 1 m long, which has just hunted down a juvenile dinosaur, Psittacosaurus, and holds it in its mouth.

Original artwork by Aleksandra Hołda-Michalska.

THE LAST TWO DECADES HAVE BROUGHT AN UNUSUAL BLOOMING OF papers that clearly show that Mesozoic mammaliaforms and mammals were much more diversified than had been previously thought. Luo (2007a, b), in his excellent reviews of Mesozoic mammal diversification, recognized five “experiments.” In the evolutionary path of early mammals, Luo demonstrated the convergence of new “experiments” with modern mammal morphotypes. Luo challenges

the traditional assumption that Mesozoic mammals were small animals with generalized feeding and terrestrial habits and had few of the diverse ecomorphotypes of Cenozoic mammals. This hypothesis . . . is now contradicted by recent discoveries of a great range of ecological specializations, such as:

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Medium 9780253006042

9 - The Promised Land

Simon J. Knell Indiana University Press ePub

In this country the sun shineth night and day: wherefore this was beyond the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and also out of the reach of Giant Despair; neither could they from this place so much as see Doubting Castle.

JOHN BUNYAN,
The Pilgrim's Progress (1678)

 

PANDER'S ANIMAL WAS AS MYSTERIOUS AS EVER, BUT DURING the 1960s it had begun to take possession of its skeleton. Fossils once considered teeth were no longer to be seen in isolation. For conodont workers this was a move toward biological truth and the only course if their science was to be considered rigorous and legitimate. Nevertheless, many worried about chaos, and some questioned the benefits. It had been the study of isolated fossils – which they were now abandoning – that had made this science so useful and effective. And it was this that had also given the animal a history, or rather, an evolutionary genealogy. Of course, this wasn't really how conodont workers saw it; most were interested only in acquiring a more refined tool. But out of this necessity emerged glimpses of the biological flesh of the animal itself, and it would do so repeatedly as the conodont workers acquired new methods and new ways of seeing.

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