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Medium 9781845939946

10: Brief History of the Main Published Works on the Mites of Economic Plants

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

10  Brief History of the Main Published Works on the Mites of Economic Plants

The mites of economic plants are mainly included in the superfamily Eriophyoidea and the families Tetranychidae and

Tenuipalpidae. Other families, e.g. the Tarsonemidae and the

Penthaleidae, have relatively few injurious species. Summarizing the history of these mite groups according to their economic importance is very difficult because of the very large number of references. This brief history covers only the main works on economic acarology, and the references that are included on systematic and taxonomic aspects highlight the importance of basic knowledge in the intervention that is applied. The discussion is arranged by geographic area. The Mediterranean region is taken to include the North African countries, the Middle

East, Turkey and Cyprus; the northern Mediterranean countries are included in the section on Europe.

Europe

The European history of acarology follows for long stretches of time the world history of the discipline, in conjunction with North

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Medium 9781780647784

24 Weissella ceti

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

24

Weissella

ceti

Timothy J. Welch,1* David P. Marancik2 and Christopher

M. Good3

1

US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, Kearneysville, West Virginia, USA;

2

Department of Pathobiology, St. George’s University of Veterinary Medicine,

True Blue, St. George’s, Grenada, West Indies; 3The Conservation Fund’s

Freshwater Institute, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, USA

24.1  Introduction

Weissella species are usually not associated with disease; however, novel strains of Weissella ceti were recently recognized as pathogens for rainbow trout

(Oncorhynchus mykiss). W. ceti was identified in

2007 at a commercial rainbow trout farm in China

(Liu et al., 2009) and later in farmed rainbow trout within Brazil (Figueiredo et al., 2012; Costa et al.,

2015) and North Carolina (Welch and Good,

2013). Genome sequences of representative US and

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Medium 9781786395146

Appendix

Dhang, P. CABI PDF

Appendix

ABDOMINAL LEGS PRESENT

THORACIC LEGS PRESENT

Beetle, borer, mealworm larvae

Moth larvae

NO LEGS

NO HEAD CAPSULE AND

WITH FLESHY LOBE

Flea larvae

NO HEAD CAPSULE AND

NO FLESHY LOBE

Muscoid fly larvae

WITH HEAD CAPSULE AND

NO FLESHY LOBE

Weevil larvae

Fig. A1.1.  Simple identification key to common household pest larvae.

© CAB International, 2018. Urban Pest Control: A Practitioner’s Guide (P. Dhang)

115

American cockroach

German cockroach

Brown banded cockroach

Oriental cockroach

Australian cockroach

Fig. A1.2.  Simple identification key for cockroach droppings. The size of the droppings generally vary from 0.5-3.0 mm in length.

116�Appendix

Table A1.1.  Toxicities of some commonly used active ingredients on the urban pest control market. The values

­indicated are for rats in mg/kg body weight.

Active ingredient

Major use category

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Medium 9781780645322

3 Soil Carbon Transition Curves: Reversal of Land Degradation through Management of Soil Organic Matter for Multiple Benefits

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

3 

Soil Carbon Transition Curves:

Reversal of Land Degradation through

Management of Soil Organic Matter for

Multiple Benefits

Meine van Noordwijk*, Tessa Goverse, Cristiano Ballabio,

Steven A. Banwart, Tapas Bhattacharyya, Marty Goldhaber,

Nikolaos Nikolaidis, Elke Noellemeyer and Yongcun Zhao

Abstract

Soils provide important ecosystem services at the local, landscape and global level. They provide the basis for crop, livestock and forestry production and help mitigate climate change by storing carbon. With expectations of a growing bioenergy supply to meet global energy demand added to the imperative to feed a global population of 9 billion people by mid-century and beyond, coupled with higher per person food demands than currently provided, the challenges to keep agricultural and rangeland soils healthy and productive are daunting. In this paper, we explore the existence of a common pattern in the use of soils under increasing demand for productivity – here described as a soil carbon transition curve: a rapid decline of soil carbon due to human clearing of natural vegetation for agricultural land use and management practices, followed by a

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Medium 9781780644233

12: Gendered Implications of Introducing Conservation Agriculture (CA): A Case Study in the Hill Region of Nepal

Chan, C.; Fantle-Lepczyk, J. CABI PDF

12

Gendered Implications of

Introducing Conservation

Agriculture (CA): A Case Study in the Hill Region of Nepal

Jacqueline Halbrendt,* Bikash Paudel and Catherine Chan

University of Hawai‛i at Ma¯noa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

12.1  Introduction

As one of the poorest countries in the world, and experiencing rising populations,

Nepal is at a high risk of food crisis. The majority of Nepal’s population lives on marginal land in rural areas, where food security is low and continuing to decrease (FAO, 2012; World Bank, 2012). Much of Nepal’s poverty is concentrated in the hill region, where farming communities depend on sloping, degraded fields for sustenance and face seasonal food scarcity (FAO, 2007; Tiwari et al.,

2008; Shively et al., 2011). Conservation agriculture (CA) practices have long been proposed as a potential remedy for such issues; nevertheless, these practices have been introduced on a limited basis only and have seldom met with success.

A combination of social, economic, cultural, and environmental factors may have contributed to difficulties in promoting the adoption of long-term sustainable agricultural practices such as CA (Paudel and Thapa, 2004). Research has shown that traditional practices often persist, despite development efforts by government extension or non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to introduce new practices (Yadav, 1987; Bunch, 1999; Cochran, 2003). Factors such as gender, education level, and economic status have each been identified as important indicators of a willingness to learn new farming practices (Kessler, 2006; Knowler and Bradshaw, 2007).

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Medium 9781789240733

8 The Influence of Farmers’ Personal Characteristics on a Range of Issues in Management

Nuthall, P.L. CABI PDF

8

The Influence of Farmers’

Personal Characteristics on a Range of Issues in

Management

Introduction

The thesis behind this book is that the human factor has an enormous influence on the life and times of any primary producing property. The information presented in the previous chapters makes this clear in a general sense. This chapter contains material that puts more flesh on the assertion by reviewing a number of studies covering a sample of aspects impacting on primary production. It is also important to realize that the ‘human factor’ is part and parcel of all Homo sapiens involved in the life of farms right from the new farm labourer through to the owners who may or may not directly contribute to the day-to-day running of the property.

In this chapter it is the manager whose human factor is brought further to the fore, but in so doing it should be remembered that her or his interactions with all the other humans involved in a farm may be influenced by the characteristics of each and every one of the participants. A farm operates not only by the planning decisions taken by the humans, but also by how successfully they carry out what has been decided. And the whole process is dynamic as people, risk and uncertainty unfold.

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Medium 9781780646312

5 Beyond the two projects, a national perspective and institutional context

Thierry, B. CABI PDF

Chapter 5

Beyond the two projects, a national perspective and institutional context

“2011 is the last year of the Leasehold Forestry and Livestock

Project. A three-year extension is being proposed, and it looks like a go. It will focus on enterprises and climate change and knowledge management for scaling-up. After those three years, perhaps we will begin a larger project. Then there is the Multi Stakeholder Forestry

Programme, now in first phase. In the project design document, it is mentioned that it should cover all forestry regimes. And WUPAP in the West, of course. It has been proposed by Department of Forest and the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation (MFSC) to put all kinds of forestry programmes on an equal footing. The bill was already in the Ministry of Law and Justice for review, but it bounced back to MFSC. The opposition force convinced them to bounce it back. In other words, it was rejected. Only when there are elections and a draft constitution will it be possible to try to have the bill passed. The bill was submitted about two years ago.”

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Medium 9781780645353

18 Accession of KRU to the WTO: The Effect of Tariff Reductions on KRU and International Wheat Markets

Schmitz, A.; Meyers, W.H. CABI PDF

18 

Accession of KRU to the WTO: The

Effect of Tariff Reductions on KRU and

International Wheat Markets

Saule Burkitbayeva1* and William A. Kerr2

LICOS KU Leuven, Belgium; 2University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada

1

Abstract

Wheat trade accounts for one-third of the world grain trade, and it is expected to double by 2050. The KRU

(­Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine) countries account for approximately one-quarter of world wheat exports and are collectively considered one of the key wheat exporting regions. Ukraine became a member of the World Trade

Organization (WTO) in 2008, Russia in 2012, and Kazakhstan is expected to reach accession soon. WTO accession entitles member countries to most-favoured-nation (MFN) tariffs and access to important markets largely inaccessible due to very high tariffs that can be charged on imports from WTO non-member countries. The KRU region’s increased market accessibility as a result of WTO membership has the potential to foster important realignments in world wheat trade flows and prices and changes in welfare economics among the major wheat trading countries. Therefore, we examine world wheat trade liberalization effects using the global simulation model (GSIM).

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Medium 9780253014993

8. Exploiting Nationalism and Banal Cosmopolitanism: EA’s FIFA World Cup 2010

Thomas P Oates Indiana University Press ePub

Andrew Baerg

SPORT AND ITS REPRESENTATION IN MEDIA HAVE LONG BEEN A site for the communication and perpetuation of national identity. International mediated sporting events such as the Olympics and World Cup have tended to become sites allowing for the expression of myths about collective, national identities. As such, it might be expected that this tight relationship between sport and the nation-state would continue in the comparatively new medium of the sports video game, especially one representing a competition between nations.

This chapter addresses this argument by performing a textual analysis of Electronic Arts’ soccer video game 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa (hereafter FIFA WC10) in order to learn how it positions its users. By working through and applying cosmopolitan theory and then applying this theory to the text, the chapter argues that FIFA WC10 departs from a traditionally national orientation to the mediation of world soccer toward a cosmopolitan mediation of the sport. As such, rather than position players as national subjects, FIFA WC10’s various gameplay options position its users as global, cosmopolitan subjects.

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Medium 9781845939625

14. Natural Diversity and Genetic Control of Fruit Sensory Quality

P Nath;  M Bouzayen; A K Mattoo CAB International PDF

14

Natural Diversity and Genetic Control of

Fruit Sensory Quality

Bénédicte Quilot-Turion and Mathilde Causse*

INRA, Unité de Génétique et Amélioration des Fruits et Légumes,

Domaine Saint-Maurice, Montfavet Cedex, France

14.1 Introduction

Fruit sensory quality has only recently become a target for breeders. Due to consumer dissatisfaction relating especially to fruit flavour, genetic improvement of this quality is now required (Ulrich and

Olbricht, 2011). Fruit sensory quality is a complex trait that contributes a combination of flavour and texture components, together with general fruit appearance attributes. Most sensory traits are difficult to measure by methods other than sensory analysis. However, some of the major components of flavour and texture such as sweetness, sourness or fruit

firmness can be assessed by physical or chemical measurements (Baldwin et al.,

1998). The complexity of fruit quality (due to the number of parameters to take into account, their polygenic inheritance and their multiple interactions) and generation length for fruit trees has limited genetic progress. Today, molecular markers enable dissection of the genetic basis of complex traits, and our increasing knowledge about the genomes offer new and efficient tools to breeders.

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Medium 9781780646282

10: Recent Development and Commercial Adoption of Legumes for Heavy Clay Soils in Queensland

Lazier, J.R.; Ahmad, N. CABI PDF

10 

Recent Development and

Commercial Adoption of Legumes for Heavy Clay Soils in Queensland

K.G. Cox1

Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Mareeba, Australia

Abstract

In previous chapters of this volume, various authors describe the development of herbaceous legumes for pastures on clay soils in Queensland until about the 1980s. Emphasis is on the collection and evaluation of the genus

Desmanthus, given its relatively recent addition to agriculture and considerable potential for providing useful pasture legumes for clay soils, particularly in the seasonally dry areas of northern Australia. Other genera are also discussed, including early assessments of herbaceous legumes that were later developed for clay soils (Clitoria,

Macroptilium and Stylosanthes). This chapter provides a summary of the development of herbaceous legumes for clay soils in Queensland from these earlier assessments until present.

Beef cattle farming is the principal agricultural enterprise in seasonally dry areas of northern Australia, including large areas of clay soils in Queensland. Sown and naturally occurring grasses provide the key feed resource, and the inclusion of sown legumes can significantly improve live-weight gain and reproductive performance per unit area. Queensland has been the centre of development for legumes for clay soils in tropical and subtropical areas of Australia, mostly through assessing and developing plants held in the Australian

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Medium 9781780645322

7 Soil Carbon Dynamics and Nutrient Cycling

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

7 

Soil Carbon Dynamics and

Nutrient Cycling

David Powlson*, Zucong Cai and Philippe Lemanceau

Abstract

The quantity of organic carbon in soil and the quantity and type of organic inputs have profound impacts on the dynamics of nutrients. Soil organic matter itself represents a large reservoir of nutrients that are released gradually through the action of soil fauna and microorganisms: this is especially important for the supply of N, P and S to plants, whether agricultural crops or natural vegetation. Organic matter also modifies the behaviour and availability of nutrients through a range of mechanisms including increasing the cation exchange capacity of soil, thus leading to greater retention of positively charged nutrient ions such as Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Zn and many micronutrients. Carboxyl groups in organic matter, and in root exudates or microbial metabolites, form complexes with various metal ions, usually increasing their availability to plants. In some cases, the formation of stable complexes has a detoxifying effect, for example by making Al and Cu less available to plants or microorganisms. Organic matter influences soil physical conditions greatly, especially through the formation or stabilization of aggregates and pores; this indirectly influences the availability of water and dissolved nutrients to plant roots. Organic matter and organic inputs are the source of energy for heterotrophic soil organisms, variations in organic carbon content and composition, impacting biome size, diversity and activities. These complex interactions between organic carbon and the soil biome require additional research to be fully understood. The implications for nutrient dynamics differ between nutrient-rich situations such as agricultural topsoils and nutrient-poor environments such as subsoils or boreal forests. In agricultural soils, excessive inputs of organic matter in manures can lead to pollution problems associated with losses of N and P.

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Medium 9781780648590

9 UV-B Signal Transduction from Photoperception to Response

Jordan, B.R. CABI PDF

9 

UV-B Signal Transduction from

Photoperception to Response

Melanie Binkert and Roman Ulm*

Department of Botany and Plant Biology, University of Geneva, Switzerland

Introduction

Sunlight fuels photosynthesis in plants and is an important environmental trigger, but it is also a potential environmental stress factor

(e.g. high light, UV-B radiation). Light captured by specific photoreceptors affects plant development throughout the life cycle, in many cases optimizes photosynthesis, and also protects the organism from potential light stress. Photoreceptors perceive photons of specific wavelength and convert signals into cellular signalling cascades. Various photoreceptors have evolved in plants that detect and respond to changes in the light spectrum in terms of light quality, quantity, direction and duration. These include the red/ far-red light-perceiving phytochromes, the blue/UV-A light-perceiving cryptochromes, phototropins, Zeitlupe family members, and the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE

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Medium 9781786390325

21 Genome Insights into Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria, an Important Component of Rhizosphere Microbiome

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

21 

Genome Insights into Plant GrowthPromoting Rhizobacteria, an Important

Component of Rhizosphere Microbiome

Vasvi Chaudhry,1* Niladri Chaudhry2 and Shrikant S. Mantri3

Bacterial Genomics & Evolution Laboratory, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology,

Chandigarh-160036, India; 2Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India; 3Computational

Biology Laboratory, National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), Mohali,

Punjab-160071, India

1

21.1 Introduction

Plants interact with the environment and their associated microbial communities in both above- and belowground ecosystems.

This assemblage of plant with environment and associated microorganisms together comprises the “plant microbiome” similarly to the way a human being possesses its microbiome (Turner et al., 2013; Berg et al., 2014).

The plant microbiome has been considered as one of the key determinants of plant health and productivity (Hartmann et  al., 2009).

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Medium 9781780644325

10 Carbon Sequestration and Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with Climate Change

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

10

Carbon Sequestration and

Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with

Climate Change

C. Devendra*

Consulting Tropical Animal Production Systems Specialist,

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract

Carbon sequestration is an important pathway to stabilize the environment with minimum effects of climate change. Farming systems provide a non-compensated service to society by removing atmospheric carbon generated from fossil fuel combustion, feed production, land restoration, deforestation, biomass burning and drainage of wetlands.

The resultant increase in the global emissions of carbon is calculated at 270 Gt, and increasing at the rate of 4 billion tonnes year–1. Strategies to maximize carbon sequestration through enhanced farming practices, particularly in crop–animal systems, are thus an important priority to reduce global warming. These pathways also respond to agricultural productivity in the multifaceted, less favoured rainfed environments. Sustainable animal-agriculture requires an understanding of crop–animal interactions and integrated natural resource management (NRM), demonstrated in the development of underestimated silvopastoral systems (tree crops and ruminants).

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